This epic is a prime example of an ancient heroic epic. The main characteristic of the epic is that it has a heroic character. Because this feature defines the whole essence and main direction of the epic. According to VGBelinsky, "in the infancy of the nation, its life is expressed more in bravery and heroism." That's why the ancient epic of heroism "only in the infancy of the people... its power and pure activity can appear only in times when it is seen in heroic victories."
The epic "Alpomish", which sang the issues of society and human life in its own reality - within the framework of folk ideals of heroism and beauty, was created in the times when nomadic life and patriarchal-dominant relations were preserved to some extent. is a poetic mirror of "stage". The epic is very common among a number of Turkic and some non-Turkic peoples who lived close to them.
Its Uzbek, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Altai versions are epics; Tajik, Tatar, Bashkir, Central Asian Arab versions are popular in the form of fairy tales and narratives. The work "Bamsi Bairak" contained in "Kitobi dadam Korqut", an important monument of the medieval Oghiz epic, is very close to the epic "Alpomish" in terms of its plot and composition.
Investigations show that the epic "Alpomish" is very common among the Uzbek people in two versions and many variants. In the last century, its variants were recorded thirty-three times (full text, fragments, contents) out of twenty-eight folk songs. Among the bakshes who recorded full versions of the epic "Alpomish" are Fazil Yoldosh oglu, Muhammadqul Jonmurad oglu Polkan, Berdi bakshe, Bori Sadiq oglu, Bekmurod Joraboy. son, son of Mardonaqul Avliyaqul, son of Abdulla Nurali, son of Saidmurad Panah, son of Umir Safar. Original copies of recorded manuscripts of the epic
It is stored in the folklore archive of the Institute of Language and Literature named after Alisher Navoi of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Among these options, the most perfect, the most artistically, is a copy recorded from the son of the famous folk poet Fazil Yoldosh. The poet's high epic skills were fully demonstrated in it. His son Fazil Yoldosh has been singing the epic "Alpomish" all his life. In the words of famous poet Hamid Olimjon, this epic was the cradle of his poetry.
The period in which the epic was created and its ideological content. Works of folklore
It is extremely difficult to determine the date of creation. Because they have reached us with certain changes during oral performance and creativity. Therefore, when determining the period of creation of folklore works, it is necessary to distinguish secondary issues from the main issues described in them, and to take into account the ideas and motives introduced in later periods.
If we pay attention to the plot structure and main motives of the "Alpomish" epic, the main place in it is the depiction of patriarchal-seed relations and this way of life. In addition, it also depicts the relationship of certain clan elders seeking to rule. Such realities of social life reflected in the saga are important for determining the history of its creation. It should also be noted that the decline of patriarchal-domestic relations and the birth of feudalism did not happen everywhere at the same time and in the same way. This process of transition continued in some lands even until the Middle Ages. Through the analysis of such a social life described in the epic and a number of motives in it, HTZarifov's epic "Alpomish" shows the patriarchal-
came to the conclusion that it was formed in the lower reaches of Syrdarya and the Aral Sea, before the Mongol invasion, during the period when clan relations began to decline. There is a serious reason for this conclusion. Because the content of the epic, the system of images in it, as well as the connection of the epic with certain places and the ethnogenetic development of our people confirm this opinion. Based on this, it can be said that the epic was originally created in the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries among the nomadic cattle-breeding Kunhirot tribe. With the migration of the Kungirot tribe to different regions, the epic spread to other clans and peoples and was reworked based on their epic traditions, and finally, it became the name of every people whose ancestors participated in its creation.
"Oz" became an epic. This issue becomes clearer if we take into account that the Kungirot clan has an important place in the ethnogenetic process of several Turkic peoples, including Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, and Kazakhs. The Uzbek version of the epic underwent the process of "renewal" in the oral epic tradition at the end of the XNUMXth century and the beginning of the XNUMXth century. However, its basis, a number of motifs and concepts in it are extremely ancient.
The epic "Alpomish" is about heroism, bravery, patriotism, of different nations and peoples
is a great epic that sings of brotherhood, love and loyalty, family strength and clan unity. The saga begins with the image of the childlessness of the chiefs of the bell clan, the brothers Boybori and Boysari. In it, the birth of the future heroes - Alpomish and Barchin in wonderful circumstances, Alpomish's precious youth and first time showing wrestling,
Boysari's migration from Boybori to the Kalmyk country, the hero's trip to a foreign country to bring his yori and befriending a Karajan, standing side by side with his rivals - the Kalmyk Alps, fulfilling Barchin's conditions and returning to his own country with his yori, his mother-in-law On his second trip to rescue Boysari, he was imprisoned for six years, escaped from captivity with the help of his horse Boychibor, came to his country on the occasion of his wife Barchin's wedding with the violent Ultontoz, and defeated his rival and established his own power. events are described.
A struggle for a beloved land, a family, and a new kind of clan unity
and overcoming all the black forces that prevent it is the main ideological content of the "Alpomish" epic. Because the epic describes the social reality of a period when patriarchal clan relations began to crumble in the Kunhirot tribe. At this stage of the development of society, the development of productive forces leads to the dissolution of the patriarchal family and the formation of the monogamous family. The emergence of a monogamous family is a progressive phenomenon that loosens the foundations of a patriarchal-fertile society. This progressive state determines the ideological direction of the "Alpomish" epic. In the period described in the epic, social groups had not yet sharply separated from each other, and class conflicts had not intensified. In this period, the struggle between the classes and their classes was not the central and leading issue in the social relations of the society, but the tribal elders, clan chiefs and their role in the tribal life were important. That is why the heroes of the epic fight for the interests of the whole tribe and live with these interests. Epos does not look at tribal elders, clan chiefs, including Boybori, Boysari, etc., as representatives of the exploitative class, and does not evaluate them equally.
The epic "Alpomish" vividly describes the ideals of heroism and the feeling of bravery of our people. In the epic, the idea that you need to be brave and fight against the enemy to reach the shore is emphasized:
I wear a white shirt and a golden jacket.
I put all my strength on my wrist,
If I get a diamond, I'll bleed red
I will wash the body of my victims,
I'm scared, I'm afraid of the enemy.
If I remember, I'll break it down
If I see an enemy, I cut it and salt it, I'm a lion, I'm looking for a tiger. In the epic, the feelings of heroism, glorification of bravery, bravery are described inextricably linked with the idea of patriotism. The heroes of the epic are closely connected with sixteen clans of the bell-ring country, Boisun-bell-ringing land. Wherever they are, they share in the sorrow of this country, they live with longing for this country. The patriotic feelings of the heroes of the epic towards their tribe, people and country, especially in the second part of the epic, are described in a way that excites the reader. This feeling is when the hero sends greetings to his homeland through a goose during captivity; Barchin, Swallow, Yadgors' pains of emigration are more vividly reflected in the episodes of the hero's encounters on the road. This feeling in Alpomish, who has loved his country and people all his life, rises to a higher point when he steps on the mother soil after seven years of captivity, he has various thoughts about his homeland and his people:
Is it the fog of Askar mountain, I don't know on these roads, are my parents safe, I haven't seen the bells, is it the old time?..
Climbing the mountain and looking like this,
Lying down, Boysun saw the country. He was disappointed when he saw Elati.
Tears rolled down his eyes. In the epic, the motifs of love for the country merge with the idea of clan unity. Separation brings heavy burdens on the members of the tribe. Barchin, the swallow, and even Boisari himself repeatedly say that they are despised in a foreign country. In both parts of the epic, Alpomish's marriage to Barchin is of the bell clan
This means that Alpomish's struggle for marriage, for his family, for his "own house" is legally also a struggle for the further strengthening of the bell clan, for its reunification in a new type. In the epic, this struggle is depicted in an integral connection with the ideas of heroism and bravery, humanity and freedom, love for the homeland and people, friendship and cooperation of different peoples and tribes in the struggle for human rights.
The main characters of the epic. The main character of the epic "Alpomish" is the desert price, Hakimbek - Alpomish is the hope and trust of the bell clan. He embodies the heroic powers of the hardworking people, is a staunch enemy of evil and wickedness, is the value of bravery for the welfare of the country, and is the cast image of the folk epic.
In ancient times and the Middle Ages, man was considered the owner of incomparable power, because in those conditions, physical strength played a decisive role in people's social life and struggles against natural phenomena. That's why in the heroic epics of all nations, there are warriors who can do anything, they are the ones who won in one-on-one battles, heroes who can destroy terrible dragons and giants, armed to the teeth, single-handedly kill the enemy army. The images of the Alps were created. Alpomish is also a physically strong, spiritually mature ideal hero.
In the epic, special attention is paid to describing Alpomish's power and value potential
given When he was seven years old, he shot from a bow towards the fourteen batmans left by his grandfather Alpinbi and blew off the top of Askar mountain. In a one-on-one fight, Kultoy and Karajan will win. Alpomish's power is particularly evident in his successful fulfillment of Barchin's conditions and in his dealings with the demanding Kalmyk Alps. In the epic, the Kalmyk Alps are depicted in an exaggerated way using the grotesque method. in the situation
made it possible to embody. For example, their appearance is described as follows:
The smurti went all over the place, there were mice lying in it, and the knife that fell from the trail ended up in the Altai. Don't be fooled by his language.
Five hundred fathoms of rope around his waist.
This is the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of the sound of XNUMX cows. When he gets angry, his anger breaks the stone.
The meatless dinner of ninety snows,
It is very springy.
A sixty-year-old straw hat,
Ninety sheepskin boots
Four hundred and ninety fathoms of staff in hand,
The cup was bigger than Sarhovuz, with Shuni and eighteen cannabis,
Ninety-year-old gray bag.
In the epic, Alpomish and Karajon fight against such people.
On the one hand, the narrator emphasizes that they are not worthy of Barchin by describing the ugly, and in other words, ugly faces of the Alps, and on the other hand, he clearly shows the physical strength of Alpomish and Karajan.
Alpomish is a hero who knows exactly who he is fighting against and for what purpose, and can distinguish between the innocent and the guilty. That is his nobility. This is clearly visible in the image of his words to Karajan, when the Kalmyk king Taichikhan marched his army against the Khnoroites who were peacefully migrating to their country:
Don't think of anything else.
Don't let this word be a disgrace to your honor.
These are not the sinners who come to us,
Many soldiers under the command of Kalmakshah.
Such a noble, loyal, intelligent, brave and valuable young man, a very powerful wrestler who was able to break the resistance of ninety alpines, will remain in captivity for seven years with the trick of Surkhayil maston, who is much inferior to him in strength and spiritual depth. Another side of Alpomish's character is revealed in this. He is a proud, childlike, very trusting and pure-hearted young man.
The second part of the epic is distinguished by its wealth of details of domestic life and wide coverage of real episodes. When Alpomish returns to his country after seven years of captivity, the narrator introduces him to the situation in his country by meeting his relatives, shepherds, shepherds, caravans, people of various categories, and clearly embodies the attitude of people to the hero and his rival Ultontoz. These episodes characterize Alpomish as an ideal hero and a "natural man" in every way. During meetings on the road, he found out that Ultontoz is having a wedding to take Barchin by force, and comes to the wedding hall in the guise of Alpomish tutor Kultoy. Zolim sympathizes with his parents, who were humiliated by a cruel opponent and who are suffering because of their son's exile, he pats the head of his son Yadgor, who was humiliated and threatened with death, and gives Ultontoz the compliments of flattering chefs and chefs. , he says, and once again demonstrates his strength, loyalty to Barchin and his family.
It is clear from Alpomish's behavior after the captivity that his struggle against Ultontoz was against the violent usurper king, who during the long-term captivity of the hero tried to seize power in his homeland and take his wife Barchin. It is a heroic struggle for his power and his family.
Alpomish's warm relations with his cousin Barchin, his sister Kaldirgoch, his friend Karajon, his parents and father-in-law, his friendship with the well-known yilkyi, his beloved and tutor Kultoy, and his friendship with the shepherd Kaiqubod are evident in his real human qualities. manifested.
Barchin is another leading character of the epic. Barchin is considered to be a perfect female character in Uzbek epic. Love of country and family, respect for people and relatives, independence and courage form the inner content of this image. As a smart, resourceful woman, she considers men and women equal in social life. That is why his mother scolds him for not advising his father Boisari, who decided to move to the Kalmyk country:
If the master comes, he will be the minister of the murid, the minister of the land if you don't have a wife?
Will the husband be unreasonable, will he not be tricked?!
What happened to my rich father and grandfather?!
In the image of the brave Barchin, who is ready to "count forty thousand as one" of the enemies, the traditional concept of the heroine ("alpine girl") typical of heroic epics is expressed. His bravery, bravery and bravery, belief in his own strength are clearly embodied in the episodes when he tried to take the Toychikhan Alps by force. The following words of Barchin, whose thesis "Don't be silent, I will cut off your head" defined his entire epic biography, cannot be heard without being moved:
If he informs, won't husband Alpomish come?
Will not doomsday come to the Kalmyks, will not the Alps like you die with Armon, can't you know your situation and walk the right way?!
The one who speaks to you is like me,
If you know, I, too, will stay, equal to you.
In these verses, Barchin's confidence in his own power is clearly expressed. His physical potential is skillfully sung in the one-on-one scene with the Kalmyk wrestler Ko'kaman.
Barchin requires not only courage and bravery, but also potential and value from the guy who wants to hold her hand. In this regard, it is characteristic that he puts four conditions before Alpomish and ninety-alps (shooting a bow, hitting a coin from a thousand paces, racing, knocking down ninety-alps in a fight). The conditions of Barchin, which glorifies heroism and bravery, are extremely artistically described in the epic.
Barchin participates indirectly, if not directly, in the fulfillment of these conditions. He encourages Alpomish, who struggled to defeat Kokaldosh in a fight, to bravery. Build it, build it
Boychibor, who heard him shouting, runs the race and reaches the finish line first. Barchin's monologue, filled with warm lyricism, deep inner excitement, and sincerity to Alpomish and his comrade in arms Boychibor, resonates in the epic with high artistic power.
The image of Barchin has its real roots in the distant past. In the patriarchal-breeding society, in the herdsman-nomadic life, the relatively independent position of women in the family and marriage, their initially equal to men in wars and battles
participation is the real conditions for the creation of the epic image of the girls. It should not be concluded that scenes depicting Barchin's combativeness, value disputes (Barchin's terms) in the epic "Alpomish" are real marriage customs and life events even in the times when this work was created and sung. This is a poetic motive in the epic, which has its real roots and historical background in the distant past, and later became a tradition, and it serves as a means of idealizing the national hero and testing his physical strength.
A fierce warrior, an Alpine girl, loyal to Alpomish, active for the honor of her family and clan
is the image of a struggling mother. In this image, the sincere attitude of the working people towards women, great honor and respect is embodied, and the fact that women have high human power and glory is clearly sung.
One of the characters that complements the image of Barchin in the epic is the Swallow. The swallow enters the epic with the episode of finding Barchin's letter hidden by Boybori and informing his brother. In this episode, the image of Kaldirgoch, who encouraged Alpomish, who was not ready to embark on a long journey, to heroic deeds, clearly expressed his respect for Barchin, his deep spiritual world, his kind and pure heart, and his love for his brother and relatives. It is no coincidence that Alpomish, who went on a journey to save Barchin, who was robbed by the Kalmyks in the epic, is given advice from the language of Swallow:
Don't give up on some poor guy.
Don't let your ignorant heart be full of thoughts, Live long, don't die for many years, Don't accompany the unworthy on the road.
The inner world of the swallow, his kindness to Barchin, his nephew Yodgor, and his brother Alpomish resonate more vividly in the second part of the epic. Swallow, who was turned into a camel by Ultontoz, waits for his brother in captivity with great hope, strongly protests against injustice and humiliation of his clansmen. In the image of his suffering and humiliation, the tones of complaints from the past, from the sky, resound:
"Still," I say, the day has passed before my eyes, Fate has brought me to such a fate,
The wretched slaves humiliated me in the desert, "Still" I say, the earth passed over my heels,
The pain of heaven tore my heart.
The characters of Barchin and the swallow are perfectly developed in all respects in the epic "Alpomish". This once again confirms SPTolstov's opinion that women occupy the main place in the Uzbek folk epic.
An important place in the epic is to describe the friendship of the Uzbek Allomish Karajan. This friendship has risen to the level of heroic friendship. When Alpomish appears in the land of Kalmyk, during his first meeting with Karajon, bitter words between them - an ancient trick, at the same time extremely characteristic of the herdsman-nomadic life, written in a positive sense in folk poetry. There will be a symbolic riddle question-and-answer session using 'p'. These dialogues vividly describe situations such as threats, terrorizing each other, and trying to intimidate each other, which are characteristic of the wrestlers' meeting: - I flew a falcon from Kokkamnsh Lake, I will be a falcon looking for Suqsur . My gardens are of emerald, my clutches are of steel, and I will be a shunkar cast from Boysin.
The widower enriched the horse with his wealth,
He spread the river Olatog by digging a hole,
The poor drove forty thousand galas,
At that gala, one of our Moya came, I will be the destroyer of Moya, nori. - Your whistle landed on Oykol, Ninety gajirs are in the middle.
You are a young boy, you will die in vain.
You also looked at me with praise,
Then you asked me about my testicles
You asked me to give you a clue,
At the beginning of a thousand and five hundred golden ovsar, I saw the wedding of ninety Alps...
The use of such figurative expressions, which go back to the ancient concepts of our people, allows the storyteller to reveal the environment in which he lives.
gave These poetic images are taken directly from life, from the living conditions of the nomadic herding people. Already, in the epic of heroism, the value is to the eagle, to the falcon; the price is the price of the girl, to the mother; and simulating the hero's opponent as a fool is a characteristic case and serves as an important poetic symbol.
The friendship between Alpomish and Karajan deepens throughout the saga. In various bright and unrepeatable episodes in the epic, the image of the karajan is revealed in every way. True human qualities in Alpomish, the fight against oppression and injustice brings Karajan closer to him. He refuses to serve the unjust and tyrannical Taichikhan, stands on the side of Alpomish in the fight with the Kalmyk wrestlers, fights against the Alps, including his own brothers, who want to take Barchin. Despite all troubles and calamities, Karajan protects the bells and whistles, his precious friend Alpomish. They fight for justice and truth, freedom and equality, human rights and dignity.
The fight against oppression and injustice strengthens the friendship between Alpomish and Karajan. According to the epic tradition, Karajan comes to the land of the hero together with the people of Kungirot. There is a warm and friendly welcome. Alpomish's parents welcome Karajan with love and compassion.
It is known that in ancient times, being a brother or a friend meant being a member of that family and was accepted into the family through the family. In the epic, through the friendship of Alpomish and Karajan, we see the poeticized state of this reality of life in the distant past. Indeed, in the epic, the friendship between Alpomish and Karajan is depicted with artistic power in true and exciting episodes, and it has risen to the level of great human friendship. Thus, in the image of Karajan, friendship and fraternity between different peoples were sung, noble human qualities - loyalty to a friend, faithfulness to a promise, and determination were glorified.
Alpomish's loyal assistants and advisers, Kultoy and Kayqubod, played an important role in the saga. Through these images, the democratic and realistic foundations of the epic are further expanded.
Kultoy is an equal member of the Boybori family, a famous horse breeder, Alpomish's educator and lover. That is why Alpomish addresses him as "grandfather", "father",
After seven years of captivity, Alpomish meets Kultoy, who is crying because he "lost my child", and when he asks why he is crying without identifying himself, Kultoy answers: "I was crying, not my son, He was the son of a wolf. We were both dear to each other, those who didn't know said Alpomish was the son of Kultoy, those who knew said Kultoy was Alpomish's slave... I was crying remembering this." In the epic, the joy of returning to Alpomish's homeland, the good news that the whole bell clan is waiting for, is described in the same Kultai language:
These days are precious nights,
Gardeners' buds, Kungirot el's children, Chuvulla, Alpomish have arrived.,.
All this shows that the ghoul is an elder, a wise adviser, a worthy helper of the hero in difficult times, who has a great position in the Boybori family.
Kayqubad is the hero's kind-hearted, simple, and at the same time very resourceful assistant who can do everything he can. Alpomish, who goes to Kalmyk for Barchin, meets him for the first time. Shepherd Kaiqubod considers himself an equal member of the Boisari family and his closest person. That is why he welcomes Alpomish as "Yeznam". In the saga, the episodes related to Kayqubad are sprinkled with very lively, sincere humor. Kayqubod Toychikhan's daughter Tovka, as "Kalini", gives food to Alpomish from the sheep she was tending, because the king promises to take her daughter when the hero comes out of the dungeon. These episodes are shown in such comical situations that Kayqubad is not laughed at, but his simplicity, nobility, conscientiousness are kindly emphasized. In this respect, the episode of Kayqubad's robbery is characteristic. In this, feelings of sincerity and pity for Kayqubad, who has never stolen in his life, are expressed.
Drop the light of the flood from your eyes, and wash your brother, Jaltang fire!
When he sighed, the patient cheered up.
Without facing my anger, my secret was revealed,
I said Jaltang, he threw it into the well.
Kayqubod comes to Alpomish's aid in a difficult time and plays an important role in his escape from captivity. In turn, when Alpomish got out of prison, the cruel and unjust Toychikhan and
defeating his army, he elevates his friend, the shepherd Kayqubad, as a khan of the Kalmyk country, and marries Tovka, the daughter of Taichikhan, his former lover. Our people in the image of Kayqubad
dreams of a just king, democratic and humanistic ideas are embodied. In the "Alpomish" saga, there are also negative characters who embody the world of evil, such as Toychikhan, Surkhayil, Ultontoz, Ko'kaldosh, and the ninety alp.
Toychikhan is the king of Kalmyk, a tyrant and a violent man, and at the same time, a puppet in the hands of Surkhayil and the ninety-eight. He gives leave to the ninety alpins to capture Barchin, and, relieved of an equal struggle in the open field, marches upon the belligerents, who are peacefully returning to their own country. Due to his fault, there will be two bloody wars, and Alpomish will be defeated each time. The destruction of Taichikhan is the destruction of the world of evil. That is why his behavior is strongly condemned in the epic.
Another negative type in the epic is Surkhayil. He is a person who disturbs peace and tranquility and always wishes harm to people. This old woman is the cause of the bloody wars between the Kalmyks and the Khnoirats. Forty-one young men of Alpomish, captured by his trick, die. Alpomish will suffer seven years of imprisonment. In the image of Surkhayil, cunning, scheming, mischievous people who serve the interests of the ruling class are exposed. In the "Alpomish" saga, the tyrant Ultontoz and his attitude towards the hero occupy an important place. Ultontoz is Alpomish's half-brother, Boybori's son from Bodom's maid.
In this regard, he also has certain rights in the property of Boybori. That is why Alpomish did not insult him before, he respected him as a member of the Boybori family. In prison, the hero thinks that Ultontoz has the right to rule Boysin, to be the head of the clan. That is why Alpomish sends greetings to Ultontoz through the goose, and asks about him from the blackbird who went to Kashal to look for him. But Ultontoz does not turn out as the hero thinks. He is violent, a self-appointed tyrant who usurps the power of the legitimate ruler, Alpomish. In Alpomish's absence, Boysin declares himself to be a khan, does dirty work, insults the hero's relatives and clan, and tries to take away his wife Barchin. During the rule of Ultontoz, the legal foundations of the country are undermined, the vital interests of the clan are harmed, and moral norms among people are violated.
In the epic, the humiliation and humiliation of Ultontoz, the elder Boybori and his relatives, in the conditions of the patriarchal-breeding society, is an insult directed against the entire Kunhirot clan, a crime committed against the traditions of the breeder. It is interpreted in the style of fluency.
Ultontoz is a tyrant who does not care about the common good, does not care about the bell seed. He is ready to do all kinds of naughty and dirty things. that is why
And Swallow said to his brother Alpomish, who came without introducing himself: After Nor died, shed my tears,
Ulton cuts off my head with cruelty,
Makes my family cry,
The ravens will eat my flesh,' he sighs. Horsemen and shepherds painfully tell Alpomish that they are tired of Ultontoz's oppression, and that the value of the elga beg has passed. Some of the callers are forced to move to different places as a result
With the movement of the alpomish, the combined bell seed will disperse again.
In the epic, Ultontoz and the people around him are severely condemned for their immoral and bad deeds and their moral depravity. Alpomish's honorable honor demanded punishment for the tyrant who tortured, humiliated and disrespected his family, relatives, parents, sister, wife and son. Ultontoz will be sentenced to such punishment. He will be hated by the people as a morally inferior person.
The epic "Alpomish" is a perfect work of art. It showed the great power of the poetic genius of the Uzbek people. In the epic "Alpomish" compared to other epics, the exaggerated style prevails. This is due to the nature of the work, the scope of the events sung in it. In the epic, there is such a beautiful exaggeration from the Alpomish language:
If I stare, the river's dust dries up,
If I pull, the wall of the fortress will fall.
Such an exaggerated image is powerful enough to crush a mountain
"His head is like a hill, his body is like a mountain" can describe the greatness of Alpomish, which stands above the Kalmyk Alps.
The appearance of Alpomish standing on the top of the mountain is described in the Karajan language with the help of wonderful similes:
Under you, the widows are like a bird, Your bitterness is like a frozen winter, You have come to Norkal like a conger. Norkalla, my wrestler, will you register?..
In the epic, there are wonderful transitions that are created in the spirit of the work, beautiful parallelisms that become a beautiful decoration of the work ("The full moon illuminates the night, The bright bow draws the bright bow...") you can find as many sounds as you want ("The rustling of a leech in the water"). The poetic lines in the work are artistically perfected to such an extent that many of them rise to the level of aphorisms embodying the experience of centuries. For example:
If the state lands on the head of a fly,
The birds greet each other.
If the flower is gone, the flower garden will be ordered,
If the city was destroyed, the sultan would tremble. In terms of wealth, everyone was a friend.
If the state returns from the beginning, it will give birth.
"Alpomish" is an epic "weaved about free, free, proud and beautiful people, praised them to the skies, and thus approached people's hearts" (Hamid Olimjon). It occupies an important place in the history of world culture as a centuries-old artistic monument of the Uzbek people.
Traditional style and poetic forms in epics. Elements of traditional style and poetic forms occupy the main place in the epics created by the combination of elaborate folk art tradition and singer's creative activity. The individual skill of the storyteller, his creative and performing activities are manifested only within the framework of a strong artistic tradition.
The compositional structure of the epics is made up of the common traditional pattern of alternating verse and prose texts. Such a general pattern is typical for the epics of a number of Turkic peoples. The poems in the epics are mainly in 7, 8 and 11 stanzas, and have their own characteristics according to the change of stanzas, stanza structure and rhyming system. 7, 8 hyjal weights are used in the image of the rapid development of events, they indicate speed. The images of the heroes' journey on horseback, battle scenes, girls' walks in the park, messages and invitations, parties and sittings are given in short poems. For example: Kulon chases through impassable lands.
Bulon is going through the impassable land.
The clapper leaps through the impassable lands.
From the lands where the wolf does not walk
It goes away...
If you listen to the singing of this image with a drum, you can hear the clatter of horses' hooves, a war song.
Poems with a long weight (11 hijali) indicate the calmness and gentleness of the movement. Monologues, dialogues, descriptions of the characters are given in this weight:
"I'm going to try and find my way,
I can't help it, my dear, if you have a net in the dungeon, let's see if your happiness is black.
- Lying in a narrow dungeon, I always said "huv"
Whoever passes by, I said water over my head, Omanat er, do not see the way, my friend, I rode the horse of death, I said.
Compared to short poems, long poems are the majority and occupy the main place in folk epics. Such important changes with the content of epics, heroes
shows that it is directly related to the behavior and situation,
The prose part of the epics is also unique. They are weighted and trimmed:
"When Ravshankhan looks at the walls of this garden, he stands up worked under the wall brick, very tight threw the walls hungover; went right rastas, on the walls bouquets, very similar masters. Saw sick did not see in the mood flowers are planted up and down say the flower pile by pile nuts around padel, did a lot master".
In epics, verse and prose have almost equal rights in terms of artistic function. Each of them has its own place, its own task. However, in terms of imagery and volume, verse is superior to prose.
The theme, plot, and most of the motifs of the epics are traditional and constant, while many plot situations, several passages in the text are also general and stable. Such fragments that "move" from epic to epic exactly or with some changes
commonly referred to as clichés or epic clichés. Epic clichés are the beginning (zachini) and ending of epics, advice to the hero, description of a horse and saddle of a horse, journey on a horse, depiction of a battle, portraits of traditional characters such as maston, kosa, Oqqiz, etc.
It depends on the skill and talent of the storyteller to use crooked clichés correctly and appropriately.
In epics, the beginning includes three important parts, that is, the beginning shows that the event described in the work belongs to the distant past, the place of the event, and the genealogy of the hero's generation.
Along with epic clichés in epics, it is another characteristic of the traditional style
- verses, couplets, expressions, which move from one epic to another, and become ready-made, stereotyped - permanent stylistic forms also play an important role. For example: "In the garden without Khazan."
Did the flowers wither, did the nightingale land on the withered flower", "A bird that screams kills on the hill", "When a horse gallops, a mountain gorge, a spear wound makes a bird groan", "You were flying, you screamed from your wings, run if you are, you have fallen off your hoof", "A lover's understanding is a dark night",
"When it rains, let the earth become muddy", "You are the flower of a garden opened in the spring", "Red flowers open from bud to bud".
Such verses, connected to the content of the epic to one degree or another, and in some cases having the character of aphorism, come at the beginning of the stanza, sometimes in the middle, and allow the speaker to make non-stop banter, skillfully conveying the flow of thoughts. with makes it easier to express faster. Such repetitions, which are tightly connected in rhyme with other lines in the stanza, create a little opportunity for the storyteller to find words, and prepare conditions for the rapid creation of the next lines.
In epics, constant stylistic forms are used with some changes according to the requirement of rhyme, weight, place of use and situation. For example, in the epic "Alpomish" the word "not" in the line "Did the flowers wither in the garden without Khazan" is in the form of "be", "if"; The word "withered" is "withered", "when", "withered", "withered", "will wither", "did not wither", "even though ", "does it fade", "does it fade", "doesn't fade", "doesn't fade", "doesn't fade", "does it fade", "does it fade"
used in the forms "deyman".
In addition to the above, constant epithets and similes are considered to be typical signs of traditional style. The unity and interaction of the traditional style and the creative art of bakhshis is one of the main features of folklore and determines the ideological-aesthetic essence of oral poetry. The traditions formed by many generations and continued until us, the traditional poetic style are considered to be the main signs of the folklore process. Because folklore arises, lives, develops, changes and is preserved within the framework of generalized, stable traditions.
The historical and cultural importance of Uzbek folk epics is unparalleled. It is a unique artistic history of our nation. It embodied the dreams and hopes of our people for centuries, thoughts about a bright future.
So, the purpose of epics and epics is to sing the mood and spirit of the working masses, to "enlighten" the listeners, who are faced with the gift through the lessons of the ideal "burungis" corresponding to this spirit and mood, to lead them to greater goodness and nobility. Folk epics play an important ideological and aesthetic role in educating national pride and self-awareness, patriotism and feelings of friendship and brotherhood.