We young people are against HIV and AIDS! December 1 - International AIDS Day
Today, HIV infection remains one of the most pressing health problems in the world. It endangers the health and lives of children, adolescents, young people, health care workers - all people in society.
In many cases, if there is a problem with the health of a person, or the population in general, they first consult you - the doctor. They will consult with you and follow your recommendations. It should be noted that the formation of a healthy lifestyle, improving medical culture, raising awareness of the population on dangerous diseases such as sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), as well as AIDS, and their prevention. your place is unique.
Of course, you need to have the necessary information about HIV infection, its early symptoms, complications, ways to prevent it, the risk of contracting the disease in the course of your professional activity, and measures to prevent it.
Behind every HIV infection mentioned is the life and destiny of a person with an incurable disease. It is worth mentioning that he also needs your kind words and spiritual support. After all, no one is guaranteed protection against the spread of this dangerous disease today.
What is HIV?
HIV is the abbreviated name for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus eats lymphocytes in the blood. Lymphocytes detect foreign pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi) and perform their function of disintegration and neutralization. Thanks to these cells, which protect our body from foreign microbes and cells, we do not get sick, and even if we do, we recover quickly. The body's defenses (immunity) are made up of lymphocytes.
What does this lead to?
Decreased lymphocytes in the blood lead to a weakening of the immune system.
Being infected with HIV does not mean the onset of AIDS. The virus can live in secret for 5-10 years after entering the body. During this period, no symptoms appear, the person can feel healthy. The latent period of the disease is dangerous for those around you, and a person can unknowingly infect others with the virus.
What is AIDS?
AIDS-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is the last stage in the development of HIV-infected diseases.
Weakening of the immune system increases the risk of various infectious diseases. For example, people infected with HIV have a higher risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis than healthy people. There are microorganisms that do not pose any risk to a healthy person. When HIV is infected, even these microorganisms can cause disease. These include rare diseases such as pneumocystis zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma (skin cancer). These diseases eventually lead to death.
Through which body fluids can HIV be transmitted?
The virus is present in many body fluids, but HIV can only be transmitted through blood, lust, and vaginal fluids through breast milk:
Urine, skin and saliva do not transmit HIV because they have very low levels of HIV. For example, for HIV infection, the amount of saliva should be 3-4 liters.
How is HIV transmitted?
HIV is transmitted through injured skin and mucous membranes.
1. Lust, vaginal fluid, and bleeding from small lesions that form permanently on the mucous membranes and skin as a result of friction during unprotected sex.
2. Through the blood:
In transfusion of untested blood or blood components;
when using non-sterile instruments in surgical, dental, gynecological procedures;
in the general, repeated use of syringes, needles and drug delivery systems (systems) in the treatment of intramuscular, skin and intravenous drug delivery;
Infects when piercing the ear, painting the skin (tattooing, tattooing) using non-sterile needles.
The disease is transmitted as a result of intravenous administration of more drugs. Preparation of the solution by hand in a childish style, taking it from the same container as most, using syringes and needles more than once can lead to HIV infection.
3. From mother to child.
During pregnancy, during childbirth, it can be transmitted during breastfeeding.
In what cases is HIV not transmitted?
Through domestic relationships, namely:
When they kiss on the face, when they embrace, when they shake hands;
When children are picked up, when they are played with;
When sneezing, coughing;
When swimming in the pool, sauna, bath;
When using the phone, toilet;
Food, through trays,
Through clothes, towels, bed pillows
HIV is not transmitted by the bite of various blood-sucking insects - mosquitoes, bed bugs, fleas, lice.
To groups at high risk of HIV infection:
1. Intravenous drug users;
3. Persons having disorderly sex;
5. Patients of medical institutions, as well as transfused persons;
6. Persons sentenced to imprisonment;
7. Children born to HIV-infected mothers.
How can HIV be diagnosed?
To do this, the blood is analyzed for antibodies produced against the virus. The most common and reliable method of analysis is IFA, i.e. Immune Enzyme Analysis. A "positive" test result indicates the presence of antibodies to the virus in the blood, ie a person is infected with HIV. The "negative" result of the analysis means that there are no antibodies to the virus in the blood at the moment, ie the person is not infected with HIV or the person is infected with HIV, but there are not enough antibodies against the virus in the blood.
Antibodies in the blood are formed some time after the virus is loaded. This ranges from 3 weeks to 6 months. It makes no sense to analyze the blood a few days after the risk of infection. In this period, which is called the "open period", the analysis still gives a "negative" result. 3-6 months after the risk of blood contamination, the analysis allows you to get a more accurate result.
Treatment of HIV infection
There is currently no vaccine or cure for HIV infection, but there are drugs that slow the rate at which viruses multiply in the body and prolong the transition from HIV to AIDS as much as possible. Under the influence of these drugs, HIV infection can become chronic. For this, a combination of antiretroviral therapy is used.
However, the treatment is not 100% effective. First, the treatment is very expensive. Second, most people living with HIV are unable to tolerate the components that make up the drug. Third, the medication regimen is very strict - a large number of pills should be taken at certain intervals, months and years. Also, studies have been conducted on many drugs and treatment may not be effective over time. Nevertheless, treatment often gives good results: the amount of viruses in the blood is reduced, as well as the damage to the body is reduced. Today, it is the only effective way to prolong the life of people living with HIV.