With the birth of a baby, many young mothers experience anxiety and fear. The health of babies is very important and interesting for mothers. Mothers are especially concerned about the baby's diarrhea and the baby's stool. In fact, a child's stool provides a lot of information about the child's general condition.
How is the baby's stool normal?
Pregnancy During this time, the child's gastrointestinal tract accumulates primary feces - meconium. The meconium is of the same mass, almost black, and odorless. It contains mucus produced in the intestines, amniotic fluid swallowed by the baby, and others.
Normally, a meconium separates on the first day the baby is born. The separation of meconium in the mother's womb is associated with pregnancy pathologies, such as hypoxia and intrauterine infections. In this case, the clarity of the amniotic fluid is disturbed and it turns green.
Within 2 to 3 days of birth, the bulk of the baby's stool may become meconium until the mother's milk supply increases and the baby is not fully breastfed. If the mother does not feed the baby with breast milk, the baby may not have diarrhea at all. This is due to the fact that the baby, fed on breast milk produced in the mother's breast, is completely absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract, leaving no residues.
As the mother's lactation progresses, feces also form in the baby. In the complete formation of feces, there is a concept of incompletely formed feces. The consistency of the stool is muddy, the primary stool is mixed, yellowish-green in color, and has a pungent odor.
Mature feces are clean, yellow in color, have a homogeneous consistency, and have an odor reminiscent of sour milk.
How many times should the baby come in?
Diarrhea increases as the baby is breastfed, and may occur almost 5-8 times a day.
Gradual diarrhea is 2-3 times a day. This is because the baby's body adapts to the digestion of breast milk, which means that the milk is completely absorbed in the baby's gastrointestinal tract and no excess mass is excreted. The baby's colon contracts only when the muscular layer is filled with milk residue from the intestinal cavity, and peristalsis occurs. This happens when the baby is 1,5 months old.
It is also normal for the baby to have a bowel movement once every few days if the baby is exclusively breastfed, is older than 1,5 months, and has no pathological symptoms (abdominal rest(pain, discomfort), as long as the child is gaining weight and he is completely calm.
Artificially fed children should have mature stools, a darker color, a sharper odor, a thicker consistency, and a daily stool. In general, if the baby does not come once a day in the state of artificial feeding, constipation can be estimated as
The presence of partially broken fiber in the stool
Baby stools are usually green in color. No matter how fast the lactation process goes, the baby's stools will continue to be abnormal. Occasionally there is mucus in the stool. The reasons for this are:
Often, the mother is not able to get enough milk because the mother does not produce enough milk, which can lead to changes in the child's stool and its composition. In addition, the baby's nipples are flat and small, which can lead to malnutrition.
How does a baby's stool change due to inflammation of the intestinal mucosa?
Hypoxic conditions during pregnancy can affect all tissues, including the intestinal mucosa. In addition, the presence of artificial preservatives, flavorings, and dyes in the mother's diet can lead to various changes in the baby.
Artificial supplements are common in the following products: sausages, canned goods, artificial juices, dairy products that provide a variety of fruits. Finally, the main cause of intestinal inflammation is intestinal dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis).
Conditionally pathogenic bacteria living in the gut increase their pathogenicity under the influence of certain factors and they damage the intestinal mucosa. Intestinal dysbiosis is more likely to occur, especially if the mother is taking antibacterial drugs during breastfeeding.
What to do?
If undigested plant debris is found in the baby's stool, the baby should be fed until he or she is full. Not only does malnutrition lead to diarrhea, but it also leads to weight gain, sleep deprivation after feedings, and short breastfeeding intervals.
Urinary incontinence is also reduced as a result of malnutrition (the norm is to urinate at least 6-8 times a day). Breastfeeding should be organized according to the child's wishes, ie when the baby wants to breastfeed during the day, it is important to breastfeed him and allow him to eat until he is full. In this way, the lactation process in mothers is accelerated.
The general condition of the child should also be taken into account when formulating the mother's diet. If the baby gains weight with age, his general condition is satisfactory, his mood is positive, and his curiosity about the environment is green, it is due to hypoxia or intestinal dysbacteriosis during pregnancy. This condition can last for days or even weeks. As mentioned above, if the child's general condition does not change, it is not necessary to interfere with the intestinal flora, and the most effective treatment for dysbacteriosis is breast milk.
If the baby's stool is green for a long time and the baby's general condition does not change, bacteriological examination of breast milk is necessary. If bacteria are detected in the milk, their sensitivity to antibiotics is determined and antibacterial treatment is started. In this case, it is not recommended for the mother to breastfeed the baby.
Dysbacteriosis in children Symptoms include abdominal distension, abdominal pain, discomfort, and weight gain. A co-program test can provide information on the extent to which digestion is progressing in the gut. If there is an inflammatory process in the intestines, there is an increase in the number of leukocytes in the feces, its presence in an acidic environment, the presence of hidden blood cells. Examination of fecal flora requires the presence and quantification of pathogenic microorganisms.
If the analysis of feces reveals a large number of pathogenic microorganisms, as a treatment - special viruses bacteriophages are used, which do not kill normal bacteria. In some cases, children are also prescribed antibiotics. In any case, probiotics are prescribed at the end of the treatment to restore the normal microflora.
Leaking granules in the feces
In baby feces, white granules, in other words, small "cottage cheese" grains, may also form in the feces. In this case, there is no need to worry if the child's general condition is satisfactory, his mood and weight gain are positive. This is often due to the baby sucking too much breast milk.
Another proof that the child's body is perfectly structured is that the child simply expels excess nutrients. Therefore, according to modern pediatricians, infants should be breastfed only at will. If the child's general condition changes, the body weight does not increase with age, and there are white granules in the stool, it is a sign of a lack of enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. Consult a doctor, who may prescribe additional enzymatic drugs to ease the child's digestive process.
How does a baby's stool change if he is lactase deficient?
Many parents find that their children's stools are liquid and frothy, have a pungent odor, and change color. Such feces leave a wet mark on the paper mat.
Periodic diarrhea, even with flatulence, is characterized by incomplete bowel movements and symptoms such as high levels of lactose, a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose.
This is often due to heredity in breast milk lactose high levels of the substance or a decrease in the production of the enzyme lactase in the digestive tract of a child. Undigested carbohydrates absorb water, which is why baby feces come in liquid form.
Lactase enzyme deficiency is often associated with dysbacteriosis, as the acidic environment kills microorganisms that are part of the normal intestinal microflora. If the child's general condition does not change, as mentioned above, no treatment is required.
By the age of 9-12 months, the activity of enzyme glands in the intestines increases and lactose breakdown is restored. If the cause of lactose deficiency is a hereditary (genetic) disease and is confirmed by geneticists, the mother will have to strictly limit dairy products from her diet and from the baby's diet. If the condition worsens, lactase-containing drugs are prescribed.
Constipation in infants
Constipation is said to be caused by a child not having a bowel movement for a day, as well as difficulty and discomfort in the arrival of stool. Constipation is relatively less common among breastfed children. Constipation can be caused by two things: the mother's malnutrition and the baby's intestinal motility (anal sphincter spasm).
The mother's poor diet is high in protein, high in easily digestible carbohydrates, and low in fiber. In this case, mothers need to reorganize their diet, which should include fruits, vegetables and black bread. Some products, such as peaches, apricots, plums, figs, squash, and kefir, have emollient properties. These products prevent constipation in both mother and child.
If the above measures do not alleviate the situation, the child's constipation can be caused by a violation of intestinal motility: hypotension or spasm of the anal sphincter. In the case of anal sphincter spasm, treatment at home is ineffective. This is because the pathological condition is related to the nervous system. Spasms also make it harder for gas to escape, and the baby's abdomen relaxes and becomes more restless.
Doctors use gas pipes to temporarily alleviate the condition. As a conservative treatment can prescribe glycerin suppositories, dufalak, microenema.
Now you have a brief idea of what children's stools look like and the most common pathologies. In any case, the child's condition is assessed only by a doctor, and treatment is prescribed by a doctor.