Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur was a writer, poet, scholar, statesman and commander who played a significant role in the culture, literature and poetry of the Middle East. Babur, with his broad outlook and brilliant intellect, founded the Baburi dynasty in India and became a statesman in the country's history. His elegant ghazals and rubais are the rarest masterpieces of Turkish poetry, and his treatises on Mubayyin (Narrated), Khatti Baburi, Harb ishi, and Aruz have made a worthy contribution to the fields of Islamic jurisprudence, poetry, and linguistic theory.
Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur was born on February 1483, 14 in Andijan in the family of Umar Sheikh Mirzo, the ruler of the Fergana nation. During this period, the struggle for power in Central Asia and Khorasan between the various governors, brothers, nieces and nephews, and the great power established by their great-grandfather Amir Temur intensified.
Zahiriddin, who loved literature, fine arts, and the beauty of nature from a young age, like all Temurid princes, learned the basics of these sciences under the guidance of leading teachers in his father's palace. However, his carefree youth did not last long. In 1494 he was orphaned by his father. At the age of 12, Babur succeeded his father as governor of the Fergana Nation. In order to reconcile with his brother Jahongir Mirzo, Babur decided to divide the Fergana nation into two and give half to his brother, and he himself began the struggle for Samarkand. This struggle, which lasted for several years, yielded nothing but massacres: Shaibanikhan, who had mixed with a large military force, gained the upper hand, and Babur was forced to leave Samarkand. After Shaibanikhan's conquest of Andijan in 1504, Babur moved south and established his rule in the Kabul nation. Between 1505 and 1515, he made several attempts to return to Central Asia. But these attempts did not yield any results. Later, in order to consolidate his position, he fought several battles for the conquest of India during 1519–1525. In April 1526, Babur won a battle with the Sultan of India, Ibrahim Lodi, in Panipat, and in March 1527, with the governor of Chitora, Rano Sango. Historical records show that the Punjab rulers, dissatisfied with the policies of the Delhi ruler Ibrahim Sultan during Babur's invasion of India, also supported him, and this victory in the Battle of Sikri enabled Babur to establish his rule in India and establish the Baburi dynasty. Known in European history as the "Great Mongols," the "Baburi dynasty" ruled India for more than 300 years.
Babur did not live long after this victory - he died in Agra in December 1530, and later, according to his will, his children brought him to Kabul and buried him.
However, in a short period of time, Babur sponsored the stabilization of the political environment in India, the unification of Indian lands, the beautification of cities, the establishment of trade, and the creation of gardens. The beautification of India, the construction of architectural monuments, gardens, libraries, and caravanserais, which are still popular today, became widespread, especially during the time of his sons and descendants. The influx of Central Asian style into Indian art and architecture began to be felt. A perfect spiritual atmosphere was created in the presence of Babur and his descendants, which brought together the most advanced and intelligent scientists, poets, musicologists and statesmen of the time. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote about the importance of the cultural environment in the Baburi state for India: "After Babur's arrival in India, great changes took place and new incentives gave fresh air to life, art and architecture, and other areas of culture became intertwined."
In addition to large-scale government work in India, Babur continued his literary and artistic activities and created the above-mentioned works. Bobur's world-famous masterpiece is the Boburnoma. It is known that it covers the history of the peoples of Movarounnahr, Khorasan, Iran and India during the period of Babur's life. The work consists mainly of three parts, the first of which deals with the events in Central Asia in the second half of the XNUMXth century, the second with the events of the end of the XNUMXth and the first half of the XNUMXth century in Kabul, Afghanistan; The third part is devoted to the history of the peoples of Northern India in the first quarter of the XNUMXth century. "Boburnoma" perfectly describes the political events of that period, the political and economic situation in the Fergana region, its capital Andijan, major cities of Central Asia: Samarkand, Bukhara, Karshi, Shakhrisabz, Osh, Urgench, Uratepa, Termez and other cities. Extremely rare information is given about It contains information about the major cities of the Kabul nation, Kabul, Ghazni, and many of their districts, provinces, and northern India.
When we turn the pages of the Boburnoma, we see the qualities and shortcomings of the peoples of Central Asia, Afghanistan and India, as well as the breadth and complexity of their world of thought, the problems of life at that time, the political and social life of Babur. Other historical sources written in Babur's time: Mirkhand, Khandamir, Muhammad Salih, Binoi, Muhammad Haydar, Farishta, Abul-Fazl Allami and other historians do not provide such accurate and complete information. In "Boburnoma" the author expresses his highest opinions about Alisher Navoi, Abdurahmon Jami, Behzod, Ulugbek Mirzo and other scholars.
Although the Boburnoma covers the history of the peoples of Movarounnahr, Khorasan, India, and Iran from the end of the XNUMXth century to the first half of the XNUMXth century, it also addresses many current economic, social, political, economic, and trade issues. It contains very rare information about its geographical location, climate, flora and fauna, mountains, rivers, peoples, tribes and peoples and their living conditions, customs, important historical structures, Hindu and Muslim temples, weddings and funerals. That is why "Boburnoma" as a historical and literary heritage amazes scientists around the world.
For many years, prominent orientalists of the West and the East have worked hard to bring the content of the Boburnoma to the world community. For example, the Dutch scientist Witsen, the British scientists J. Leiden, V. Zrskin, R. Koldekot, A. Beverej, T. Albot, the German Yu. Kleinrat and A. Keyzer, Pave de Courteil of France, Mirza Nasriddin Haydar Rizvi of India, RR Art and NI Bayur of Turkey and Bakke Gromon of France, Abulhay Habibi of Afghanistan, Rashid Akhtar of Pakistan, Nadvi and Shah Alam Mawlid. Japanese scholars are among the world's leading orientalists in the study of the Boburnoma.
It is known that the work of Uzbek, Tajik and Russian scholars in the study and popularization of Babur's historical, scientific and literary heritage is also noteworthy. During the XIX-XX centuries Georg Ker, N. Ilminsky, O. Senkovsky, M. Salye, Porso Shamsiyev, Sodiq Mirzayev, V. Zohidov, Ya. Thanks to the efforts of such scholars as Gulomov, R. Nabiyev, S. Azimjanova, A. Kdyumov, "Boburnoma" was repeatedly published in Russian and Uzbek, with a preface and became the intellectual property of a wide range of readers, and his poems were published several times. was found.
Babur is also known in Uzbek literature for his delicate lyrical works. His life and literary activity in Movarounnahr coincided with the height of the chaos of feudal groups and the ongoing crisis of the Timurid state. If we see such complexities in the Boburnoma, how they are reflected in the poet's psyche can be seen in his poems. When attempts to reunite Movarounnahr were unsuccessful, Babur reflected in his poems his moods of times when he was mentally distressed and frustrated by the betrayals of officials. Later, when he left his homeland and went to Afghanistan and India, Babur's poetry began to feel a sense of homeland, a longing for the homeland, and the hope of returning to it.
Tole or not was a disaster for me,
I did everything I could - I made a mistake,
Leaving my place, I turned to the Indian yellow,
O Lord netayin, what a face darkness.
At the same time, Babur's lyricism beautifully and skilfully expresses the human qualities that are the main content of poetry, his companion, his beauty, his boundless love and pain of exile, the pains of separation and the joys of vision.
The leaves of the hazan turned yellow in the face of the new flower,
Have pity on me, O lolarux, this is my yellow face.
You, O flower, did not let go of your arrogance like a cypress,
I fell at your feet and begged like a leaf.
In his lyrical poems, Babur always called people to goodness, justice, humanity, and the appreciation of high human feelings:
Whoever fulfills it is the source of fulfillment.
Whoever suffers is a heretic.
Evil is never seen by a good person,
Whoever is evil is punished.
In addition to his lyrical poems and historical "Boburnoma", Babur also wrote works in Islamic jurisprudence and other fields. In 1522 he wrote to his son Humayun. In his book Mubayyin, he describes the tax system of the time, the rules of tax collection, how much tax is levied on whom according to the Shari'a, and other issues. In his pamphlet Khatti Baburi, he tried to simplify the Arabic alphabet from the point of view of Turkic languages, especially Uzbek. As an experiment, he copied the Qur'an in the Hatti Baburi alphabet. Bobur's dream is about weight and rhyme. It is known that there was a work called "Detailed", but this work has not reached us.
As a historian, lyric poet and scholar who contributed to the solution of social problems with his well-known and well-known works, Babur has a worthy place in the history of the spiritual culture of our people.
Source: “Stars of Spirituality” (Abdulla Qodiri National Heritage Publishing House, Tashkent, 1999).