Domestic life in the state of Amir Temur. Timur's rule and its importance


Domestic life in the state of Amir Temur. "Temur's rules" and its importance.
In covering this issue, the speaker should first of all try to explain that A. Temur paid great attention to the creation of a just state and the development of the main principles of such a state based on the historical evidence.
Amir Temur well understood the need to establish strict power in the country. After all, it was not easy to keep the arbitrary chiefs of Jaloir, Barlos, Sulduz and others from the nomadic Mongol-Turkic tribes in obedience. For this purpose, they begin to introduce law and order in the country. In order to establish a strong base for himself, he organized a special military unit from the Barlos tribe and gave them great privileges.
Amir Temur relied on Islam to strengthen the power of his state. Islamic leaders supported him. Peasants and city dwellers, who made up the majority of the country's population - merchants, artisans - approved the measures of the entrepreneur aimed at strengthening the state.
A. Temur strengthened the foundations of his state with justice and followed the motto "Strength is in justice" (Rosti-rusti). He divided the country's population into 12 classes, followed a policy specific to each of them, and demonstrated his great organizational skills. Division of Amir Temur state territory into districts and own
Even though he made it to be distributed to his sons as ulus, he kept Movarounnahr firmly in his hands without breaking it up. He gave land, water and property to those who served the state as "SUYURFOL", and introduced "Tarkhan" labels for special services. Those who received the Tarkhan label were exempted from various taxes. Although Amir Temur was the supreme ruler of the state he founded, he never called himself a king or sultan, but kept the title of amir for life. Following tradition, he kept fake Khans with him.
Amir Temur always followed 4 things in conducting state affairs. These are: 1. Council. 2. Consultation. 3. decisiveness, entrepreneurship and vigilance. 4. Caution.
Amir Temur proved with historical examples that twelve qualities are necessary for a ruler and that if one of these qualities is not followed, the affairs of the kingdom may be damaged. A. Temur, the ruler should first have his own word, secondly, be unjust, thirdly, only he should judge in every case, fourthly, he should be firm in his decision, fifthly, his judgment should be introduced, and sixthly, he would be a king. not to entrust his work to anyone, from the seventh to listen to the opinion of the majority, from the second to act with judgment without haste, from the ninth to keep the raiyat between hope and fear, from the tenth to do all the work according to his will, ten First, he taught that he should not share his work with anyone else, and secondly, he taught that he should keep public affairs secret and be alert and vigilant from others.
A. Temur paid special attention to the purity of state officials and not to look at the treasury, and in his regulations: "If the ministers of finance, who are the treasurers of the country, have committed fraud in financial matters and appropriated part of the wealth, check "Rilsin", he wrote.
Amir Temur relied on 7 ministers to manage the state and required 4 ministers to be present in the cabinet every day. These are: 1. Minister of country and raiyat. 2. Minister of Sipox. 3. Minister of abandoned property. 4. Minister in charge of state affairs. In addition, he formed the board of ministers of borders, consisting of 3 more ministers.
The first of the ministers was in charge of land taxes, duties, tribute - tax collection, as well as mirshab works, he performed important tasks in the country, solving daily problems, studying the state of raiyats, distributing the harvest, taxes, and tributes from the regions. The second vizier was considered as the sipoh vizier and managed the sipoh's salaries and tanhos (here in the sense of gifts given in return for their services to the crown). The third minister was involved in the management of the property belonging to the destitute, the dead and the fugitives, the zakat and taxes collected from the property of the coming and going merchants, the management of the country's livestock, and the income collected from all this was kept in the form of deposits.
A secretary was appointed in each office of the kingdom to keep records of income and expenses, daily expenses.
In the Sahibqiran state, except for the Devoni buzurg (prime minister), there was an administration called "Devan" in each region. He supervised all the affairs of the state: tax collection, maintenance of order, social buildings, markets, baths, roads, water works. He was watching the behavior of the people. His staff occasionally conducted interrogations, inspections, and investigations.
Temur introduced the position of a special arzbegi who investigates the complaints and complaints of the people. Arzbegi would consider complaints and petitions, find out who was guilty of them, and report to the council. The culprits were severely punished, whoever they were. A strict procedure - a rule has been established for taxes and financial matters. In this regard, the Russian orientalist DNLogofet wrote that "...the income tax, which we are striving for now, existed even then in his (Temur's) power."
Amir Temur was very serious about the selection of his ministers and made it important for them to have 4 qualities. These are: 1. intelligence; 2. pure breeding; 3. awareness of the conditions of sipokhu-raiyat; 4. patience endurance and peace.
Amir Temur also developed a system of requirements for the people appointed to rule the countries he annexed to his empire. According to A. Temur's request, such leaders should have the following qualities: 1) Highness of character and mental state; 2) Subtle mind and intelligence; 3) High qualification and the ability to appeal to the people and the army; 4) Patience and compromise with people.
These above rules and requirements played an important role in managing and strengthening the power of Amir Temur. Since the administrative-territorial division of the empire created by Sahibqiran consisted mainly of districts, it was necessary to form and strengthen the new emirate system. Therefore, Amir Temur ordered 313 people to be appointed emirs, and appointed one person as amir-ul-umaro, 4 people as beklarbegi, 100 people as ten chiefs, 100 people as centurions and 100 people as thousand chiefs. Besides these, 8 amirs were appointed as amir-ul-umaro assistants.
In short, Amir Temur was a great statesman armed with noble qualities such as national pride, patriotism, and humanitarianism. As Mojar scholar Herman Vamberi noted, the original Turkic period in Central Asia began with Timur. He embodied the victory of the Turks over the Mongol-Chinese world and founded the nation state, the official language of the country was the Turkish (Uzbek) language.
The political activity of the great Amir Temur plays a practical role not only in enriching the history of statehood, but also in strengthening our national statehood in the current situation.
An important work written by the Great Amir Temur is "Tuzukoti Temur", i.e. "Tuzukoti Temuri". In the komus book called "Qomus ul Alam" and published in Istanbul: "Amir Temur wrote a complex of komus called "Tuzukoti". In it, he described his life path"1, - is written.
One of the main sources for the study of Amir Temur's activities, a manuscript copy of "Temur's Laws", written in Turkish, was kept in the national library by the governor of Yemen, Ja'far Podshah. This work was translated into Persian by Mir Abu Talib Hasani al-Turboti after returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca. It is on the basis of this copy that the "Tuzuklari Temur" has reached us and was translated into Russian and published at the end of the 1783th century. The work is famous all over the world and has been translated into many languages, retaining its importance over the centuries. White, a professor of Arabic and an English major, prepared the Persian text of the work for publication, and it was published in Oxford in 1785. In 1890 and 1963, the Persian text of this edition was published without any changes in the Indian cities of Calcutta and Bombay, and in 1787 in Iran. It was published in French in XNUMX by the famous French orientalist L.Lyangle.
"Temur's Laws" consists of two sections and 56 paragraphs, and these sections are called articles in the book. The first article consists of Timur's regulations on the establishment and consolidation of the state and the organization of the army. The second article describes the details of the 13 councils held by Amir Temur and the activities of the great master.
Also, in the first part of "Tuzuklar" the life and socio-political activity of Amir Temur from the age of seven until his death (February 1342, 1405-18), his acquisition of central power in Movarounnahr, the elimination of social disunity and the establishment of a centralized state, Iran and the conquest of Afghanistan, the victory over the Khan of the Golden Horde, Tokhtamysh, and finally the military campaigns of the great world-leader to Azerbaijan, Turkey, and India are concisely described.
The second part of the book consists of special wills and advices addressed to the heirs of Sahibqiran. It talks about who is to be relied upon in the administration of the state, the duties and tasks of the crown-throne holders, the duties and tasks of the ministers and army chiefs, the order of rewarding the emirs and other officials for their special services to the crown-throne, etc.
In the second part, that is, in the article, Amir Temur writes: "Let it be known to my happy children who conquer countries and my powerful grandchildren who rule the world, I hope from the Almighty God to build a kingdom for many of my children, my generation, I tied the affairs of the state into several traps, and I wrote a manual about the management of the kingdom.1.
The great Amir Temur continued: "I have also done good to the good people of every country, I have expelled the corrupt, corrupt and immoral people from my country."2, - he wrote.
His Excellency Amir Temur did not only glorify moral virtues, but demanded that these virtues be fulfilled by the citizens living on the territory of the state, even by their own family members. "I have seen from my experience," writes Amir Temur, "if the state is not built on the basis of religion, if it is not tied to the net, then the kingdom will lose its happiness, power and order." Such a kingdom is like a naked man, who looks away from him when he sees him. Yehud kasu nokas is like a house without a roof and no doors.
That is why I strengthened the building of my kingdom on the basis of Islamic law and order.1.
Amir Temur intended his rules to be a guide for the next generation: "Let each of my children and descendants act according to it. They will use these rules as a guide in managing the affairs of their kingdom, so that the state and the kingdom that will pass from me to them will be saved from damage and decline."2, - he wrote down.
In fact, not only Timurid princes, but many eastern rulers used this work in their activities and gave it high value. For example, Shah Jahan (1628-1657), Khan of Kokand Muhammad Ali Khan (1822-1842), Emir of Bukhara Abdullah Khan (1885-1910) copied passages from "Tuzukot" and followed their rules.
In Temur's tuzuks, important information is also given about the structure and armament of the army that Amir Temur created, as well as the military art of the great master. Because the army formed by Amir Temur was considered one of the most perfect and powerful armies of that time due to its strategic and tactical skills. Amir Temur became famous as a great general in the world. Even now, "Temur's tactics" is taught as a special course in military schools of many foreign countries. After our country and people became independent, we are turning to the great Amir Temur and his "rules" to create the foundations of our independent statehood. His principle of "Strength is justice" serves as a guide for establishing a legal state.
The great entrepreneur Amir Temur was recognized not only by the people of Central Asia, but by the whole world. Because he did great services not only in Central Asia, but also for other peoples of the world.
The creation of a centralized state by Amir Temur, the termination of feudal disunity, and the establishment of peace and tranquility in the country played a positive role in the socio-economic and cultural development of the peoples of Central Asia. During the Mughal era, the destroyed economy was restored, handicrafts and commercial activities developed, science and culture flourished, and cities prospered. Most importantly, the people entered a peaceful and peaceful way of life.
1 Komus-ul-Alam. Istanbul, 1891. Page 1727.
1 Timur's rules, Tashkent, 1991, p. 55.
2 Timur's rules, Tashkent, 1991, p. 55.
1 Timur's rules, Tashkent, 1991, p. 57.
2 Timur's rules, Tashkent, 1991, p. 53.

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