Grammatik mavzular

DO`STLARGA ULASHING:

GRAMMATIK MAVZULAR

PAST SIMPLE YOKI PAST PARTICIPLE?

Ingliz tilining noto’g’ri fe’llar jadvali barchamizga tanish. Bu jadvalni juda ko’pchilik ingliz tili grammatikasi qo’llanmalarida uchta ustunli shaklda berilganligini ko’ramiz. Bu ustunlarda fe’lning InfinitivePast Simple va Past participle shakllari alifbo tartibida beriladi. Infinitiv to’g’risida yetarlicha ma’lumot berganmiz va fe’lning bu shakli tushunib olishda deyarli muammolar keltirib chiqarmaydi. Past Simple va Past Participle shaklidagi fe’llarning har ikkalasi ham Past (o’tgan) zamonda bo’lganligi sababli ba’zi o’rganuvchilar ularni farqlashda qiynalishadi.

Ushbu maqola Past Simple va Past Participle shaklidagi fe’llarning ishlatilishdagi asosiy farqlarini yoritib beradi. Quyida bu ikki shakldagi fe’llarni ishlatilishdagi farqi ko’rsatilgan. Ularning alohida zamonlarda qo’llanilishi haqida batafsil ma’lumotni shu zamonlarga bag’ishlangan mavzularda o’rganib olishingiz mumkin.

PAST SIMPLE shaklini o’tgan zamonda boshlangan VA o’tgan zamonda tugagan ish-harakatlarga nisbatan ishlatamiz. Bunda biz ish-harakat qachon boshlanib, qachon tugaganligi to’g’risida ma’lumot berishimiz shart bo’lmaydi. Eng muhim masala ish-harakatning o’tgan zamonda bajarib tugatilganligi va hozirda uning bajarilmayotganligi hisoblanadi.

PAST PARTICIPLE shaklidan esa quyidagi zamonlarni yasashda foydalanamiz. Bunda SEE (ko’rmoq) fe’li misol qilib ko’rsatilgan. Bilasizki, SEE fe’lining jadvaldagi (SEE – SAW – SEEN) o’rni uchinchi ustunga (Past Participle) to’g’ri keladi.

Present Perfect

I have seen it.

Past Perfect

I had seen it.

Future Perfect

I will have seen it.

O’tgan zamon shart ergash gap

I would have seen it.

Passive

It was seen.

Past Simple va Past Participle ishlatilishi bo’yicha asosan faqat shu farqlarni ko’rishimiz mumkin. Past Participle shaklidagi fe’llarning alohida zamonlarda qanday va nima uchun ishlatilishi to’g’risida har bir alohida zamonga oid mavzularni o’rganish orqali bilib olishingiz mumkin.





JAMLOVCHI OTLAR
Jamlovchi otlar odamlar, hayvonlar, narsa-buyumlar, fikrlarning ko’p sonlisini bitta ot bilan jamlab ko’rsatadi. Jamlovchi ot odatda birlikda ishlatiladi. Misol uchun “tadbirkorlar qo’mitasi” oti haqida o’ylab ko’ring. Bu yerda “tadbirkorlar” ko’plikdagi ot bo’lishiga qaramasdan, “qo’mita” bitta bo’lganligi sababli ushbu jamlovchi ot birlikda hisoblanadi.
Ingliz tilidagi jamlovchi otlarga ba’zi misollar:
  • A bunch of grapes or keys – uzum boshi yoki kalitlar yig’indisi;
  • A gang of bandits – bezorilar to’dasi;
  • A class of students – talabalar sinfi;
  • An army of soldiers – askarlar armiyasi;
  • A hive of bees – asalarilar to’dasi;
  • A fleet of ships – kemalar to’dasi;
  • A constellation of stars or galaxy – yulduzlar yig’indisi;
  • An archipelago of islands – orollar guruhi;
  • A bevy of girls – qizlar guruhi;
  • A crowd of people – odamlar to’dasi;
  • A mob of people – odamlar guruhi;
  • A swarm of flies – chivinlar to’dasi;
  • A jury of judges – hakamlar hay’ati;
  • A herd of cattle – mollar to’dasi;
  • A flock of sheep – qo’ylar to’dasi;
  • A team of players – o’yinchilar jamoasi.
Jamlovchi otlarga ba’zi misollarni ko’rib o’tamiz:
  • This class consists of fifty students.
  • The jury was unanimous in its decision.
  • The crowd was too large to be controlled by the police.
  • The mob attacked the police station.
  • The Australian cricket team is scheduled to visit India in July.
  • A bevy of girls entered the garden.
  • A bunch of keys was lying on the table.
  • You can find a swarm of flies hovering over uncovered trays of sweets.
  • The crew of sailors controlled the ship in the stormy sea.




SIGNUP YOKI SIGN UP
Sign up iboraviy fe’l hisoblanib, bir shaxsning qaysidir guruh, harakat yoki birlashma shartlariga rozilik bildirgan holda, imzo chekib qo’shilishini anglatadi. Bu fe’l kimningdir a’zoligini, ma’lum bir ro’yxatdan o’tishini bildiradi. Sign up fe’lining o’tgan zamon shakli signed up. Ot shakli esa signing up hisoblanadi.
Signup sign up iboraviy fe’lidan kelib chiqqan. Ot shaklida ishlatilgan holda signup bir kishining a’zoligi uchun imzo chekiladigan joy, bir varaq qog’oz yoki boshqa biror vositani anglatadi. Sifat vazifasida kelgandan esa bir kishining ro’yxatdan o’tishi uchun vosita bo’ladigan joy, imzo chekiladigan qog’oz yoki boshqa bir vositani tasvirlaydi.
Sign up va Signup ishlatilgan quyidagi misollarga e’tibor qarating:
Those who had been in the 1984 floods or the Canterbury earthquakes knew what effect a natural disaster had on a city and should sign up to protect themselves, he said. (Southland Times)
The other 49 countries that signed up — seven others are still waiting for approval from their domestic legislatures — included Germany, the U.K. and South Korea. (International Business Times)
Thirty-seven mushers signed up in person on Saturday at the Iditarod headquarters in Wasilla and 25 others entered by mail. (Fairbanks Daily News-Miner)
Signing up for Medicare Advantage (MA), the managed health care version of Medicare, also requires you to have Parts A and B. (Money)
Currently, the signup is available only in Europe, with no time frame announced for how long the registration link will be available.  (International Business Times)
Users of the latest iOS 8.4 public beta are encountering a signup prompt for Apple Music a full two weeks before the service is scheduled to go live, according to tips received by AppleInsider. (AppleInsider)




VERY VA TOO SO’ZLARINING ISHLATILISHDAGI FARQI
Quyidagi ikkita gapga qarang. Ularning ma’nosida qanday farq bor, deb o’ylaysiz?

AIt is very hot.
BIt is too hot.

A oddiy darak gap hisoblanadi. Bunda shunchaki issiq ekanligi aytilgan.
Ammo B gapda esa qiyinchilik, noqulaylik, yomon sharoit ma’nosi bor. Balki bu gapdagi holatda kimdir o’zini yomon his qilayotgandir, yoki kimgadir bu issiqlik yoqmayotgandir.
Yana boshqa misollarni ko’ramiz…

CLisa is very tall.
DLisa is too tall.

C oddiy darak gap: Oho, qaranglar, Lisa juda uzun bo’yli qiz! Bu shunchaki uning bo’yiga nisbatan ta’rif.
Ammo D gapda salbiylik kayfiyati bor. Balki Lisaning bo’yi shunchalik uzunki, u har doim eshikdan kirishda boshini urib olar. Balki uning bo’yi shunchalik uzunligidan u boshqalar bilan teng holatda o’zini yomon his qilar.
Demak, yodingizda saqlashingiz kerakki, TOO so’zi har doim nimaningdir salbiy tarzda ortiqcha ekanligini bildiradi va har doim gapga salbiy ma’no beradi.




HAVE TO, SUPPOSED TO VA OUGHT TO
Ba’zi abituriyentlar have to, supposed to, va ought to iboralarining ishlatilishida qiynalishadi. Quyida ularning o’zaro farqlari haqida bir oz to’xtalamiz.
Have to ma’nosiga ko’ra must modal fe’li bilan bir xil, deyish mumkin. Have to sizning majbur ekanligingizni va bu majburiyatni bajarishdan o’zga chorangiz yo’qligini anglatadi.

John has to go to work everyday.
The students have to study tonight.

To be supposed to ham majburiyatni ifodalaydi. Ushbu ibora ham sizning qaysidir ish-harakatni bajarishga mas’ul ekanligingizni va ko’proq bu ish-harakatni bajarishingizni kimdir sizdan kutishini bildiradi. Yodingizda bo’lsin, supposed to iborasidan oldin har doim to be fe’lining kerakli shakli ishlatilishi kerak.

Sally is supposed to meet her friend tonight.
All of the employees are supposed to attend today’s meeting.

Ought to maslahat ma’nosini ifodalaydi. Ought to bilan sizning nimadir bajarishingiz kerakligi ta’kidlansada, bu ishni bajarishga sizning majburligingiz ifodalanmaydi.

We ought to clean the house tonight.
Phillip ought to help you with your homework.

(Yuqoridagi barcha iboralar modal fe’llarining ekvivalentlari, modal fe’llari hisoblanishadi. Ulardan keyin har doim asosiy fe’l infinitiv holatda ishlatilishi kerakligini unutmang.)

***

Ba’zan yuqoridagi iboralarning ma’nolari o’zaro bir xildek tuyulishi mumkin. Bunday holatda ulardan qay birini ishlatish to’g’risida bosh qotirsangiz va qiynalsangiz, shunchaki so’zlovchi qaysi ma’noga urg’u berayotganligiga e’tibor qarating.

I have to do my homework. (Bajarmaslikdan o’zga choram yo’q. Agar bajarmasam, yomon gap eshitishim tayin.)

I am supposed to do my homework. (Agar men vazifani bajarmasam, o’qituvchim bajarmaganligimni sezib qoladi – o’qituvchim vazifani bajarishimni kutadi.)

I ought to do my homework. (Men vazifani bajarmasam ham bo’ladi, ammo bajarishim kerak deb hisoblayman chunki men sinfda yaxshi o’qishni xohlayman.)





«HAVE YOU EVER…?» HAQIDA
Ever «qachondir» deb tarjima qilinib, o’tgan zamondan hozirga qadar – butun umr davomida bajarilgan (yoki bajarilmagan, bir necha marta bajarilgan) ish-harakatlarni ifodalaydi. Ba’zi kam uchraydigan holatlarni hisobga olmaganda, ever so’zi faqat so’roq gaplarda va NO so’zi bilan inkor javoblarda ishlatiladi.
Ever so’zi have/has +  sifatdosh 2 (past participle) bilan ishlatiladi.
Masalan:

Have you ever eaten a frog?

Has she ever gone to Australia?

Savolga javobingiz HA (yes) bo’lganda have/has + past participle qurilmasi ishlatiladi.

Have you ever seen a whale?

Javob:

Yes, I have seen a whale. or Yes, I have.

Javobingiz YO’Q (no) bo’lgan holatda esa quyidagilardan biri ishlatilishi mumkin:

haven’t /hasn’t + ever + past participle yoki

have /has + never + past participle

(yuqoridagilarning ikkalasida ham bir xil ma’no bor)

Misol uchun, savol:

Have you ever seen a whale?

Javob:

No, I haven’t ever seen a whale. yoki
No, I’ve never seen a whale. 
yoki
No, I haven’t.





ING QO’SHIMCHASINING TURLI HOLATLARDA ISHLATILISHI
«-ing» qo’shimchasi ot, sifat yoki fe’l sifatida ishlatilishi mumkin.
  • Smoking is forbidden. – Chekish ta’qiqlanadi (fe’l).
  • I have a long working day. – Mening ish kunim uzun (sifat).
  • I don’t like dancing. – Men raqsga tushishni yoqtirmayman (ot).
Qo’shimcha ot sifatida ishlatilganda, otdan oldin artikl ishlatilishi ham, ishlatilmasligi ham mumkin.
  • Marketing is a very inexact science. – Marketing juda noaniq fan.
  • The marketing of the product will continue for a few months yet. – Mahsulotni ommalashtirish hali bir necha oylar davom etadi.
Qo’shimcha iboraning bir qismi sifatida ishlatilishi ham mumkin.
  • Speaking to an audience is always stressful. – Omma oldida gapirish har doim hayajonli.
  • Swimming after work is very relaxing. – Ishdan so’ng suzish juda yoqimli.
Rasmiy ingliz tilida egalik olmoshidan keyin «-ing» qo’shimchali fe’l ishlatiladi. Norasmiy ingliz tilida esa ko’pchilik bu qoidaga amal qilmaydi.
  • I’m angry about his missing the meeting. – Men uning majlisga kelmaganidan hafaman.
  • Do you mind my coming? – Mening kelishimga qarshi emasmisiz?
Qo’shimchali fe’l sifat o’rnida kelganda otdan oldin ishlatilishi mumkin.
  • I was met by a welcoming party at the airport. – Men aeroportda bazm bilan kutib olindim.
  • Let’s go to the meeting room. – Keling, majlislar xonasiga boramiz.
ING qo’shimchasi qo’shilgan fe’l predloglardan keyin ishlatiladi.
  • Before leaving, you need to speak to Sarah. – Ketishingizdan avval Siz Sara bilan gaplashishingiz kerak.
  • After discussing it with her, I’ve changed my mind. – U bilan muhokama qilganimdan so’ng men fikrimni o’zgartirdim.
  • Instead of feeling sorry for yourself, do some work for charity. – O’zingga achinishdan ko’ra bir oz hayriya qil.
Agar «to» yuklama emas, predlog sifatida ishlatilsa, undan keyin fe’l ING qo’shimchasi bilan birga ishlatiladi.
  • I don’t object to working this Sunday. – Men bu yakshanba ishlashga qarshi emasman.
  • I’m looking forward to seeing him again. – Men uni yana ko’rishni umid qilib kutayapman.
  • I’m used to working long hours. – Men uzoq soatlar davomida ishlashga ko’nikkanman.
O’zidan keyin ING qo’shimchasini oladigan fe’llar ko’p. Mana ulardan eng ko’p uchraydiganlari.
  • I admit telling her. – Men unga aytganligimni tan olaman.
  • I appreciate having the raise. – Men pul yig’ilganidan xursandman.
  • I avoid speaking to him. – Men u bilan gaplashishdan qochaman.
  • I consider blowing your nose in public to be wrong. – Men hammaning oldida burun tozalashni noto’g’ri, deb bilaman.
  • I delayed coming until the last possible moment. – Men kelishni imkon qadar kechiktirdim.
  • He denied telling her. – U unga aytganligini inkor etdi.
  • I enjoy dancing. – Men raqs tushishdan rohatlanaman.
  • I feel like having a party. – Men bazm uyushtirishni xohlayman.
  • I’ve finished writing the report. – Men hisobotni yozishni tugatdim.
  • I’ve given up going to the gym. – Men sport zalga borishni tashladim.
  • I can’t help thinking about it. – Men uni o’ylamasdan tura olmayapman.
  • I can’t imagine ever leaving this company. – Men bu kompaniyadan ketishni hech tasavvur qila olmayman.
  • I don’t mind doing that. – Men buni qilishga qarshi emasman.
  • He put off talking to her as long as he could. – U imkon boricha bu bilan gaplashishni kechiktirdi.
  • I can’t stand drinking beer. – Men pivo ichishni yomon ko’raman.
Ba’zi fe’llar TO infinitiv yoki ING qo’shimchasi qo’shilgan fe’l bilan bir hil ishlatilishi mumkin. Ammo ularning ma’nolarida katta farq bo’ladi. O’zidan keyin TO yuklamasini oluvchi fe’llarni mp3 lug’atlar (Kompyuterga yuklab olish , Mobil telefonga yuklab olish) yordamida yodlashingiz mumkin. Mana eng ko’p uchraydigan shunday holatlar:
  • I stopped smoking last month. – Men o’tgan oy chekishni to’xtatdim (Men endi chekmayman)
  • I stopped to smoke a cigarette. – Men sigaret chekish uchun to’xtadim (to’xtashdan maqasadim sigaret chekish edi)
  • I remember telling him. – Men unga aytganligimni eslayman (o’tmishni eslash)
  • I must remember to tell him. – Men unga aytishni esda saqlashim kerak (kelasi zamonda bajarish uchun eslash)
  • I’m interested in finding out more details. – Men ko’proq ma’lumot topishni xohlayman (kelajakda topishni)
  • I was interested to read his report. – Men uning hisobotini o’qishni xohladim (o’tgan zamonda xohlagan edim)
Ba’zi fe’llar esa infinitiv bilan ham, -ing qo’shimchasi bor fe’llar bilan ham bir hil ishlatilishi mumkin. Bunda ma’noda ham hech qanday o’zgarish bo’lmaydi. Mana shunday holatlar:
  • I love to go shopping. – Men harid qilishni yoqtiraman.
  • I love going shopping. – Men harid qilishni yoqtiraman.
  • I’m afraid to fly. – Men uchishdan qo’rqaman.
  • I’m afraid of flying. – Men uchishdan qo’rqaman.
  • I started to learn English 5 years ago. – Men 5 yil oldin ingliz tilini o’rganishni boshlagan edim.
  • I started learning English 5 years ago. – Men 5 yil oldin ingliz tilini o’rganishni boshlagan edim.




FOR SO’ZINING TURLI HOLATLARDA ISHLATILISHI
Biz «for» so’zini «uchun» degan tarjimadan tashqari, ‘because’ – «chunki» tarjimasini keltirib chiqarish uchun ham ishlatishimiz mumkin. For so’zi bu tarjima bilan faqat rasmiy ingliz tilida ishlatiladi.
  • The divers have to be careful for a sudden change in conditions could be dangerous – Haydovchilar ehtiyot bo’lishlari kerak, chunki holatdagi keskin o’zgarish xavfli bo’lishi mumkin.
  • Read the instructions carefully for you will only get one chance to enter the information – Yo’riqnomani diqqat bilan o’qing, chunki ma’lumotni kiritish uchun faqat bitta imkoniyatga ega bo’lasiz.
Bundan tashqari for so’zini maqsad yoki sababga nisbatan ishlatishimiz ham mumkin.
  • What did you that for? – Nima uchun buni qilding?
  • What is that for? – Bu nima uchun?
  • Thank you for your letter. – Maktubingiz uchun raxmat.
  • I don’t have enough money for the ticket. – Menda chipta uchun yetarli pul yo’q.
  • I need treatment for my bad back. – Mening og’riyotgan belim uchun davo kerak.
For so’zlovchining qaysidir narsaga hayrixohligini, tarafdorligini ham bildirishi mumkin.
  • He is for the idea of cutting taxes. – U soliqlarni kamaytirish tarafdori.
  • I am for this change in the way we do things. – Men qilayotgan ishlarimizdagi shunday o’zgarish tarafdoriman.
  • You need to stand up for what is right. – Haqiqat uchun kurashishingiz kerak.
Biz for so’zini vaqt va masofani bildiruvchi iboralar bilan ishlatishimiz mumkin.
  • I walked for miles. – Men milyalab yurdim.
  • I waited for a long time. – Men uzoq vaqt kutdim.
  • We will be away for the next week. – Biz kelasi hafta davomida ketgan bo’lamiz.
Ba’zan yuqoridagiga o’xshash ma’nolarda for so’zini butunlay tushirib qoldirishimiz ham mumkin. Bunda, gap ma’nosida hech qanday o’zgarish bo’lmaydi:
  • I walked miles. – Men milyalab yurdim.
  • I waited a long time. – Men uzoq vaqt kutdim.
Hozirgi tugallangan zamonda (Present Perfect) for ish-harakat davomiyligi oralig’ini bildirsa, since ish-harakatning boshlanish vaqtini anglatadi.
  • I have studied English for seven years. – Men 7 yildan beri ingliz tilini o’rganaman.
  • I have studied English since I was 12. – Men 12 yoshimdan beri ingliz tilini o’rganaman.
For so’zi ishtirok etgan ba’zi eng ko’p tarqalgan, bilishingiz foydali bo’lgan iboralar:
  • I enclose a cheque/check for 100 euros – Men 100 yevroga chekni ilova qildim.
  • What’s another word for stupid? – Ahmoq so’zini bildirgan boshqa so’z nima?
  • I’ve known him for ages. – Men uni uzoq vaqtdan beri bilaman.
  • I am all for making this change. – Men bu o’zgarishni qilishga qattiq kirishganman.
  • Get ready.  -What for?   -Anne is coming. – Tayyorlaning. -Nima uchun? -Anna kelayapti.
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