Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur

DO`STLARGA ULASHING:

Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur
(1483-1530)
  XVI asr boshlarida taniqli shoir va davlat arbobi Zahiriddin Muhammad Boburning Hindiston zaminida boburiylar saltanatiga asos solib, XIX asrga qadar mazkur sulolaning ushbu mamlakatda bunyodkorlik va ma’rifatparvarlik ishlarini olib borgani tarixdan yaxshi ma’lum. Zahiriddin Muham­mad Bobur 1483-yil 14-fevralda Andijon shahrida tug`ilgan. Otasi, Amir Temurning pannevarasi Umarshayx Mirzo Fargona viloyati hokimi bulgan va onasi Qutlug Nigor xonim Toshkent xonlari avlodidan edi. 1494-yili Umarshayx Mirzo vafot etgach, 12 yoshli Zahiriddin taxtga o`tirib, Fargona viloyati hokimi bo`lgan. Ammo taxtga o`girgandan keyingi 11 yil davomida O`rta Osiyoda ro`y bergan turli siyosiy o`zgarishlar uni qarindoshlari va 250 tacha piyoda askarlari bilan avval Badaxshon, so`ng Kobulga ketishga majbur etgan.
  Bobur dastlab Afg`onistonda o`rnashgandi. 1519-yilda Hindistonga yo`l olib, 1526-yil aprelda uning shimoliy qismini egallashga muvaffaq bo`ldi. Bobur Hindistonda yirik davlat tuzishga muvaffaq bo`lgan va poytaxt sifatida Jamna (Yamuna) daryosi bo`yidagi Agra shahrini tanlagan. Taniqli shoir va davlat arbobi 1530-yil 26-dekabrda vafot etgan. Dastlab Agra shahridagi muvaqqat maqbaraga dafn etilgan, keyinchalik xoki Afgoniston poytaxti Kobulga ko`chirilgan va hozirda shoirning maqbarasi Kobuldagi Bog`i Boburda joylashgan.
  Zahiriddin yoshligidanoq turli sayohatlarni yaxshi ko`rgan. Bunday safarlarda chiniqqan ham. Yosh bo`lishiga qaramay, o`lkamizning geografik qiyofasini tasavvur qila olgan. Olim 15-16 yasharligida Farg`ona, Samarqand va Toshkent oralig`ini bir necha marta kezib chiqqan. 19 yoshga to`lgan yili Hisor tarafidan toqqa ko`tarilib, Fondaryo va Iskandarko`l orqali Zarafshon vodiysiga o`tib, Samarqandga kelgan. U bu haqda shunday yozadi: «..Qamrud darasiga kirib, yuqori tomonga qarab ketdik. Tor va uchma yo`llarda, baland va tik dovonlarda ko`p ot va tuya qoldi. Uch-turt manzil qo`nib, Siratog` dovoniga yetdik. Dovonmisan-dovon. Hech qachon bunday baland va uchma yo`llar bilan yurmagan edik. Ko`p tashvish va mashaqqatlar bilan xatarli tor va uchmalardan o`tib, yuz azobu zahmatlar bilan halokatli balandliklar, tor dovonlardan oshib, Fon tumaniga keldik. Fon tog`larining orasida bir katta ko`l bor, uning muhiti — sathi taxminan bir sha’riy keladi, ajab ko`ldir; g`aroyibotdan holi emas…» Boburning mazkur safari bundan 480 yilcha ilgari amalga oshirilganligini inobatga olsak, uning sarguzashtlarga qanchalik ishqiboz bo`lganiga amin bo`lish mumkin.
  Boburning yozishicha, 21 yoshigacha Farg`onadan Buxorogacha, Toshkentdan Hisor va Hirotgacha bo`lgan barcha shahar va qishloqlarda hamda dashtu tog`larda bo`lgan. Farg`ona vodiysida u borgan eng sharqiy joy – O`zgan shahridir. O`zbekistonning g`arbi, Buxoro va Qarshi ham Boburga yaxshi tanish edi. Shuningdek, Eron bilan Afg`oniston chegarasida, o`sha davrning eng yirik poytaxtlaridan bo`lgan Hirotda bir qancha vaqt yashagan. Shu tariqa umrining deyarli 36 yilini safarlarda o`tkazgan va o`n minglab kilometr yo`l bosgan, Bobur Farg`onadan Bangolagacha (Hindistondagi Bengaliya) borgan.
  Sayohatlari mobaynida esa Bobur o`zining shoh asari «Boburnoma» uchun boy ma’lumotlar to`plagan. Manbalarda keltirilishicha, yonida doimo xotira daftari bo`lgan va u ko`rgan, bilgan, eshitganlarini darrov yozib qo`yardi. Keyinchalik yozuvlarini tartibga solib, qo`shimchalar kiritib, tahrir qilib, yaxlit asar ko`rinishiga keltirgan.
  Darhaqiqat, olimning yaratgan badiiy asarlari bilan bir qatorda O`rta Osiyo, Afg`oniston va Hindiston davlatlarining geografiyasi, tarixi, ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy hayoti, tabiati, etnografiyasi va tibbiyotiga oid muhim ma’lumotlarni o`zida aks ettirgan «Boburnoma» alohida o`rin tutadi. «Boburnoma» Zahiriddin Muhammad Boburning Farg`onadagi yoshlik chog`laridan to Hindistonda podshoh bo`lganigacha boshdan o`tkazganlarining mufassal ta’rifidir.
  Asarda Farg`onadan Hindistongacha bo`lgan keng hududda Boburning o`zi ko`rgan joylari, ularning tabiati, boyligi, odamlari, urf-odatlari, hayvonot va o`simliklari hakidagi ma’lumotlar batafsil yoritilgan.
Shunisi e’tiborliki, istalgan fan yoki kasb vakili mazkur kitobdan o`zi uchun kerakli ma’lumotni topa oladi. «Boburnoma» eski o`zbek tilida yozilgan bo`lib, Hozirgi vaqtda zamonaviy o`zbek tiliga o`girilgan.
 «Boburnoma»da keltirilgan ma’lumotlar shundan dalolat beradiki, olim nafaqat tabiatshunoslik va geografiyani, balki biologiya, zoologiya, etnografiya, tarix va boshqa fanlardan yaxshi xabardor bo`lgan. Jumladan, «Boburnoma»da mingdan ortiq geo­grafik nomlar — mamlakat, shahar, qishloq, qal’a, dasht, tog`, dovon, dara, daryo, ko`prik, kechuv, ko`l, chashma, bog`, yaylov, o`tloq va boshqa joylarning nomlari tilga olinadi. Bundan tashqari, Bobur bir qancha uzoq mamlakatlarning (Arabiston, Iroq, Eron, Ozarbayjon, Rum, Tibet, Xitoy, Qoshgar) nomlarini ham keltirganki, bu olimning o`sha vaqtlardagi dunyo geografiyasidan ham yaxshi xabardor bo`lganligidan dalolatdir.
   Bobur o`z asarida turli joylarning iqlimi, relefi, aholisi va boshqa xususiyatlarini tasvirlar ekan, ularni bir-biri bilan taqqoslashda qiyosiy usuldan ustalik bilan foydalangan. Bu esa hozirgi zamon geografiyasida keng qo`llaniladigan usullardan biridir. Jumladan, Bobur O`sh bilan Ko son (hozirgi Namangan viloyatidagi Kosonsoy)ni taqqoslab shunday yozadi: «Andijonga suv O`shdan kelganidek, Axsiga suv Kosondan keladi. Havosi yaxshi. Safoli bog`chalari bor… Xushhavolikda O`sh bilan Kosonning o`xshashligi bor…»
«Boburnoma»da turli joylarda yashaydigan aholiga oid xususiyatlar ham taqqoslanib, g`oyat qiziqarli ma’lumotlar berilgan: «…Xuroson va Samarqandda turkiy va aymoqlar kuchmanchilardir. Afgonistonda esa xazora va afg`onlar ko`chib yuradilar».
  «Boburnoma»da turli joylardagi tog`larning tabiati, ularning geomorfologiyasi va hatto, yonbag`ir eksiozitsiyasiga oid ma’lumotlar ilmiy tarzda yoritilgan. Jumladan, Bobur Hisor tog`larining janubiy etaklarida yog`ingarchilik ko`p bo`lishi to`g`risidagi ma’lumotlarni keltiradi. Farg`ona vodiysi iqlimining qishdagi holati nimaga bog`liq ekanligiga to`g`ri baho berib, bunga sabab havo oqimlarining g`arbdan sharqqa qarab esishini va ular asosan, Bekobod orqali vodiyga kirib kelishini aniq ko`rsatib o`tgan.
  «Boburnoma»da o`lkamizning daryo va ko`llariga oid ma’lumot­lar juda ko`p. Daryolarning chuqurligi, muzlashi, suv sarfi va manbalari asarda batafsil ta’riflangan. Bobur XVI asr boshidayoq Osiyo qit’asidagi Hindukush va Himolay tog`lari shimol va janub daryolari suvini ajratuvchi tog`lar ekanini ko`rsatgan.
Asarda shuningdek, juda ko`p giyoh va daraxtlar, ularning xosiyatlari va ahamiyati muallif tomonidan usta tabiatshunos sifatida ta’riflangan. U shunday yozadi: «Farg`ona viloyatining tevarak-atrofidagi tog`larda yaxshi yaylovlar bor. Tobulg`u shu tog`larda bo`ladi, boshqa hech qayerda bo`lmaydi. Tobulg`u shunday bir bo`tasimon daraxtdirki, po`sti qizil, undan hassa, qamchi dastasi, qushlarga in qiladilar; yo`nib kamon o`qi yasaydilar, ancha yaxshi daraxtdir…»
  «Boburnoma»da Hindiston o`simliklariga ham keng o`rin berilgan. U yerning barcha daraxt, meva, giyoh va gullari juda batafsil tasvirlanadi. Asarda tilga olingan tropik o`simliklarning nomi terminologiya nuqtai nazaridan ham ulkan ahamiyatga ega. Xususan, asarda banan daraxti keyla, deb atalgan va kokos palmasi (anba) haqida ma’lumotlar bor. Chunonchi, hozirgi vaqtda 33 foizi ende­mik turlardan iboratligi ilmiy jihatdan isbotlangan Hindiston uo`simlik dunyosining xususiyatlari Bobur yashagan davrlardayoq uning asarida keng dalillar bilan asoslab berilgan.
  Bobur asarida hayvonot dunyosini to`rt tipga bo`lgan: quruqlik hayvonlari, parrandalar, suvda va suv yoqalarida yashaydigan qushlar, suv hayvonlari. Bu esa Bobur XVI asrdayoq hayvonot dunyosi­ni tasniflash bilan shug`ullanganligini ko`rsatadi. Ayniqsa, uning Hindiston fili to`g`risidagi ma’lumotlari g`oyat qiziqarli. «…Yovvoyi hayvonlardan biri fildir. Hindistonlik uni «haatiy» deydi… Fil yirik jussali va ziyrak jonivordir. Har nima desalar biladi va har nima buyursalar qiladi…» Bobur karkidon haqida shunday yozgan: «Yana biri karkdir. Bu ham yirik jonivor. Kattaligi uch sigircha bo`ladi… Bir shohi bor burnining ustida, uzunligi bir qarichdan ko`proq…»
  «Boburnoma»da keltirilgan joy va tabiiy ob’ektlarning nomlari o`sha yerda yashaydigan aholi tilida keltirilgan. Bu esa toponimikaning asosiy qoidalaridan biri, ya`ni joy nomlari tarjima qilinmasligini muallifning yaxshi anglaganidan dalolat. Farg`ona vodiysining janubi-sharqidagi tog`larni (hozirgi nomi Turkiston tizmasi) Bobur Andijon tog`lari, shimoldagi tog`lar (Talas)ni esa Yettikent tog`lari, deb atagan. «Boburnoma»da O`rta Osiyo, Afg`oniston va Hindistondagi yuzlab geografik nomlar, jumladan, Konibodom, Hodarvesh, Kuhisafid, Nazargoh, Toshkent, Samarqand, Sivolak kabilar tarixiy va lug`aviy jihatdan izohlab berilgan.
  «Boburnoma»ning o`ziga xos tomoni shundaki, unda muallif turli hududlarning tabiati, geografik xususiyatlari, o`simlik va hayvonot dunyosi hamda xo`jalik imkoniyatlarini yaxlit majmua sifatida sodda tilda tasvirlaydi. Bobur tug`ilgan joyi Farg`ona vodiysi va umrining bir qismi o`tgan Hindiston  geografik o`rni, tog`lari, suvlari, cho`l, yaylov va bog`lari to`grisida ularning hozirgi zamon holatiga to`g`ri keladigan qiyosiy ma’lumotlarni keltirgan. Shu nuqtai nazardan «Boburnoma»ni o`zbek tilida yozilgan dastlabki eng yirik tabiiy, tarixiy, geografik ilmiy asar, Boburni esa O`rta Osiyo, Afg`oniston va Hindiston geografiyasi birinchi bo`lib o`zbek tilida tasvirlagan olim, deb aytish mumkin.

Boburiylar sulolasi Hindistonda buyuk davlat barpo qilish bilan bir qatorda, ushbu yurtda obodonchilik ishlarini olib borishgan va mamlakatda ilm-ma’rifatning yuksalishiga katta hissa qo`shishgan. Shuningdek, Bobur va uning avlodlari tomonidan Toj Mahal, Shox Akbar maqbarasi, Agra va Dehlidagi Qizil qal’alar kabi mahobatli me’moriy obidalar barpo etilganki, ular hozirda ham nafaqat hindistonliklarning, balki butun dunyodan tashrif buyuradigan sayyohlarning sevimli ziyorat maskanlari hisoblanadi.

  Boburning qoldirgan ilmiy merosi muhim tarixiy-geografik manba sifatida hozirgi vaqtda ham olimlar tomoni­dan keng o`rganilmoqda. «Boburnoma» arab, fors, hind, ingliz, nemis, fransuz, golland va turk tillariga tarjima qilingan bo`lib, ko`plab nusxalari jahonning nufuzli kutubxonalarida saqlanmoqda. XIX asrda Markaziy Osiyoni o`rgangan vengriyalik sayyoh A.Vamberining fikricha: «Boburning «Boburnoma»si Yuliy Sezarning «Kommentariya»lari kabi jahon adabiyotida katta o`rin egallaydi».

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