The fast is broken by the following actions, and it is obligatory to fast only if it is qadha:
If the fast is broken due to travel, illness, menstruation or insanity;
Non-edible items, such as paper and clay, are consumed;
Ingestion of stone, iron, gold, silver and other solids;
Eating and drinking as a result of rape;
It is the opposite of eating or drinking or having sex thinking that it is not yet dawn, or opening one's mouth when one thinks that it is dawn or that the sun has set. if it comes out;
If water is ingested due to carelessness in rinsing the mouth or nose;
If the mouth is full due to intentional nausea;
If snow or rain falls on the mouth;
Intentional sniffing of smoke;
If he swallows a pea and a large amount of food left between his teeth;
If he forgets his fast and eats or drinks, he will continue to eat with the suspicion that he has broken his fast;
If he breaks the fast because he did not intend to do so at night;
If he goes on a journey in the afternoon and breaks his fast;
If he abstains from eating and drinking all day without intention;
If he feels the taste of oil or water dripping in his ear in his throat;
If the drug is instilled into the nose;
If semen comes out due to hugging or kissing his wife;
If the medicine for a stomach ulcer is injected into the stomach and the medicine for a wound on the head is inhaled;
A person who performs one of the above-mentioned deeds will have to abstain from the rest of the day in honor of Ramadan and will fast one day at a time.
The fast is broken by the following actions, and qadha and kaffarah are obligatory:
Deliberate eating or drinking.
Taking medications without an excuse.
Intentional sexual intercourse.
Deliberate swallowing of rain in the mouth.
Swallow, even after chewing.
Swallowing sesame seeds.
Consumption of salt.
The habitual person eats the soil. No expiation is required if it is not learned.
Salt, on the other hand, is obligatory only for qadha fasting. However, if a person has a habit of eating salt, he will break his fast and atone. There are fatwas that say that a person who eats salt must make both qadha and kaffarah. Therefore, caution is needed ("Fatwa al-Alamgiriya", "Summary", "Sharhi nihoya").
If water passes through the throat carelessly (for example, during ablution or ghusl) due to someone's compulsion or in remembrance of fasting, then the qadha itself is obligatory and no expiation is required.
If a fasting person who sleeps during the day falls asleep and drinks water, his fast will be broken. Without atonement, he only makes up for it ("Fatovoyi Alamgiriya", "Qazikhan").
Intentions of fasting
It is makrooh to break the fast until it is suspected that the dawn has broken. Breakfast in the month of Ramadan replaces the intention of fasting. (Fatawa Alamgiriya). After sunset, it is possible to make an intention for fasting the next day (from Imam Sarakhsi's book Mabsut).
The intention of fasting Ramadan can be done until the middle of the day, that is, until the time for noon prayer.
The intention of qadha and kaffarah fasts should be made before dawn. The time elapsed from dawn to dusk is the day, and the time of fasting is determined by this interval.
The concept of "atonement"
There are three types of atonement:
Free the slave. But now that slavery is abolished, it is impossible to do so.
Fasting for 60 consecutive days. It is obligatory not to interrupt this fast. Therefore, it should not coincide with the two days of Eid and Tashriq.
A person feeds 60 poor people with the same food as the food he eats. At the same time, the atonement should pay attention to the fact that the poor should not have relatives like their parents, wives and children. It is also possible to give each poor person half a som (about 2 kg) of wheat or one som of barley or dates, or the value of one of them.