Alcoholism (chronic alcoholism, alcoholism) is a chronic disease caused by frequent and excessive consumption of alcohol and accompanied by a craving for it.
The need for headaches, specific changes in the individual are accompanied by somatic and social consequences. Causes of alcoholism are drinking alcohol. Alcoholism gives people happiness, good mood, high spirits, cheerfulness during development. Alcohol has a rapid effect on the central nervous system, which impairs the activity of the central nervous system. When a person drinks alcohol, he loses focus and loses his movements. In doing so, mental work ability is impaired, speaking harshly and boasting. All this leads to a state of normal intoxication. Intoxication is an acute alcohol intoxication caused by the psychotropic effects of alcohol. This leads to mental, autonomic nervous disorders in humans.
Clinical landscape. There are the following types of intoxication:
I. A state of normal intoxication, it has 3 levels. 1. On a mild level there is a rise in mood, freshness, contentment, sweet dreams. At the same time it is characterized by loudness, speed of speech, animation of gestures, loss of clarity in movement. At this level, the volume and quality of the work done by people who drink decreases. Vegetative symptoms include redness or whitening of the face, increased sexual desire. At the mild level of intoxication, all events are stored in the patient’s memory. 2. Moderately severe mood swings, irritability, irritability, sadness. A drunk person overestimates his abilities, self-criticism decreases, there is a deeper movement disorder, ataxia and dysarthria. There is a slowing of thinking, slowing down of speech, repetition of one word. The patient's attention decreases. 3. In severe intoxication, there are signs of numbness and coma. At the same time, patients show imbalance, symptoms of muscle atony, amygdala, dysarthria.
Patients experience headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, changes in respiratory and cardiovascular function. As a result, colds, bruising, hypothermia, seizures, involuntary urination and defecation are observed. At this level of intoxication, a person’s memory is not fully preserved.
II. Altered type of normal intoxication Complicated intoxication, in which mental disorders increase or decrease. There are the following modified types of intoxication: 1. Explosive type - the high mood of intoxication is less, alternating with short-term anger, resentment. 2. Dysphoric
type, in which there is tension, sadness, anger, depression, danger to others. 3. In the hysterical type, the movement is impaired, the arms are bent and disturbed, which can cause minor injuries. The patient may have a hysterical seizure. 4. In the depressive type, the mood decreases, patients often cry, there is sadness, anxiety, suicidal thoughts. 5.
In the somnolence type, after a short period of high mood, you may fall asleep and fall asleep. 6. In the epileptoid type, epileptic seizures and movement disorders are observed. 7. In the paranoid type, the movement and speech become more intense, insulting people around, causing war and quarrels.
III. Disease-specific intoxication is a very acute transient psychosis, which occurs as a result of alcohol consumption. As a result of frequent consumption of alcohol, a person becomes addicted to it and suffers from chronic alcoholism. There are the following stages of chronic alcoholism:
1. The main symptom is a tendency to alcoholism, the transition from simple alcoholism to disease. Primary alcoholism occurs only during drinking ceremonies. Patients invent and speed up such rituals in order to drink alcohol. And they themselves come to life. They leave all work and hurry to drink alcohol, if there are obstacles in front of patients, their mood is low. In the first stage, patients drink 2-3 times more alcohol to get drunk. Increased resistance to alcohol is accompanied by a loss of vomiting and leads to intoxication. Patients do not remember the events of this state of intoxication (drug amnesia).
2. With the intensification of the symptoms of the first stage of the disease, an abstinent symptom (headache) appears. At the same time, the patient experiences fatigue and autonomic changes with the end of intoxication. It is accompanied by headache, dizziness, palpitations, redness of the face and eyeballs, dryness, lethargy. This condition occurs day and night. If the patient drinks a little, his condition will improve. As alcoholism progresses, so does abstinence. Along with vegetative changes, somatic changes are added. These include disorders of the heartbeat, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain. In the mental sphere, the whole body trembles, worries, temptations, self-blame, anger, blindness, bad dreams, hallucinations.
Abstinence lasts 2-5 days, and patients drink in the morning for headaches. In this case, the patient can not stop drinking. Alcohol resistance lasts for several years. In patients, the state of intoxication changes, the period of euphoria is shortened, and psychopathic states occur.
3. Decreased resistance to alcohol means the transition to stage 3 of the disease. At the same time, patients drink little by little throughout the day, drinking lasts from several weeks to several months. At the same time, drinking a lot on the first day, and in the last days, alcohol resistance decreases. Physical changes occur and they stop drinking completely. Patients become shameless, shy, belligerent, liars. In this case, hepatitis, changes in the heart become irreversible. The course of the disease is 6-7 years from drinking to the beginning of the second stage. This is a rapidly evolving type. The average developed species lasts 7–15 years, the period of gradual development takes more than 15 years.
The cure. Chronic alcoholism is treated in three stages:
B irinchibosqic h. Disinfection (detoxification therapy);
general treatment 40 ml of 20 ml of glucose with 5% 5,0 ascorbic acid intravenously for 15 days, 5% unitiol 3-5 ml 6–10 times intramuscularly; 30–15 ml of 20% sodium thiosulfate 10–15 times intravenously; 0,9% sodium chloride is infused intravenously in 1-2 liters; hemodesis, reopolyglucin 400,0 ml intravenously 4–5
intravenously for 25 days with the addition of 5% glucose to 10,0–40 ml of 14% magnesium sulfate solution. Vitamin B12 1000 mg, B1 100 mg, nicotinic acid is given in large doses. It is used in abstinence and chronic periods. In case of vegetative asthenic nerve changes in abstinence, nootropic drugs, phenazepam 1-2 mg, 0,5% seduxen 2-4 ml, pyrroxine 1-3 ml 2-6 times are administered.
Aminazine, tizersin, haloperidol, teralin, melleril, amitriptyline are prescribed for depression.
I second a. Treatment of disease, alcoholism
psychotherapy is also used. Psychotropic drugs - carbide 90-150 mg, neuleptil 30 mg, meleryl 150 mg, teralene, etaperazine, pyrogenal 250-1500 mpd are prescribed to eliminate the tendency to alcohol. 0,5-0,2 ml of freshly prepared 1,0% apomorphine is injected subcutaneously to induce conditioned reflexes to arouse aversion to alcohol. Under the influence of the drug, the reflex reflex increases. The patient is recommended to drink 30-50 ml of alcohol. In order to increase the return, it is recommended to dissolve additional emitin 0,05 mg, ipecacuan 0,25-0,5 mg, copper sulfate solution 0,5-0,75 mg in 150 ml of distilled water. The patient develops a feeling of intolerance to alcohol. At the same time, 0,125–0,5 g of teturam (antabus) is given daily for 30 days. In order to strengthen the effect of the drug, a teturam-alcohol test is performed. 3-4 days before this test, teturam is increased to 1,0 g. After drinking the patient is observed anesthesia, pain in the heart, high blood pressure, seizures. In order to prevent these changes, before the test, patients are given intravenously by mixing 8,4% sodium bicarbonate, 10% calcium chloride solution in 10% glucose. Metronidazole (trichopol) 1000–2000 mg daily for 3–4 weeks to induce alcohol intolerance in patients; furazolidone 300–800 mg for 10 days; siamide 50–100 mg for 5–6 days, nicotinic acid 100–400 mg for 3–4 weeks. For long-term use of this method, Esperal and radeter drugs are injected intramuscularly.
Three-step treatment is a way to stabilize the results and prevent recurrence of the disease. Psychotherapy and psychotropic drugs are used for this purpose. To prevent recurrence of the disease, teturam 0,25-0,75 g, trichopol 0,75-1 g, nicotinic acid are given daily for 1-3 months. This course will be repeated in 1-2 months.
Alcohol psychosis or alcoholism is an acute, sudden onset disease that is dangerous to the patient and others. Head injuries, infectious diseases, prolonged insomnia, severe mental disorders lead to its appearance. Before the disease there is a disturbance of sleep, the patient has nightmares. It is more common in men. As a result, brain tissue is poisoned by alcohol. In it the metabolism is disturbed. Alcohol psychosis mainly begins in the abstinent state. The clinical picture of alcoholic psychosis is in the form of delirium, hallucinations, temptations, encephalopathy. There are also mixed and altered forms of psychosis.
Alcohol is crazy There are three stages:
1. There are emotional movements, excitement, talking a lot, an increase in thoughts and words, increased gestures, hypersensitivity, rapid mood swings, insomnia and autonomic changes.
2. The illusion and hallucinations of vision are added to the above changes.
3. External events are accompanied by the loss of time and place. In patients with delirium psychosis, hallucinations can occur, for example, when the patient gently presses a finger on the closed eyes and speaks to them in different ways, they may develop visual hallucinations. The patient can see various notes on a blank piece of paper or talk on a disconnected phone. In delirium there are always tremors, palpitations, rapid heartbeat, profuse sweating. Alcoholic delirium lasts 2–8 days and ends with deep sleep.
Alcoholic hallucinations. The course of the disease is divided into acute, moderately acute and chronic types. The acute form lasts from several hours to several weeks or up to 1 month. It starts suddenly and is accompanied by insomnia, auditory hallucinations in the evening or at night. The moderate type lasts from one to six months and has auditory hallucinations. The chronic type lasts more than six months. At the same time, auditory hallucinations are constant, and patients argue with these sounds, beat, and then get used to these sounds. They calm down and then regain their ability to work.
Alcoholic tempting psychosis The following types are available:
1. Alcoholic paranoid (temptation to chase), in which the patient develops headache, anxiety, excitement, fear, agitation. To the patient, everyone seems to be a persecutor. Illusions of sight and hearing will soon appear. Patients may avoid persecutors or injure themselves. In the evening there are signs of delirium, auditory hallucinations.
2. Temptations of jealousy are more common in men. Patients feel as if they have found their wife to play. They often look for evidence and items, follow their wives and check their clothes. Patients can inflict bodily harm on their wives.
Alcoholic encephalopathy - Acute mental changes, somatic (pale skin, yellowing of the eyes, fever, palpitations, hypotension, fainting, enlargement of the liver) and nervous system (tremors, dizziness) , muscle tension or relaxation, nystagmus, decreased vision, the appearance of pathological reflexes, stiffness of the neck muscles). Korsakov psychosis is observed in chronic alcoholic psychosis. This includes memory loss, location, time, environment
patients do not know, there are signs of confabulation and polyneuritis. The events of the past will be remembered, the ability to profession and work will be preserved. Alcohol paralysis is more common in men. Mental changes, thinking, knowledge, self-criticism are reduced. Euphoria, jokes, high self-confidence, memory impairment are observed.
The cure. In the treatment of patients with alcoholic psychosis poisoning is prescribed hemodesis, reopolyglucin 400,0 ml 2 times a day, intravenous infusion of 5 ml of 400,0% glucose solution. 30 ml of 10,0% sodium thiosulfate, 5–5 ml of 10,0% unitiol, 10 ml of 10,0% calcium chloride, 25 ml of 10,0% magnesium sulfate are recommended. When the patient is agitated, seduxen, GOMK; Alcoholic temptations, aminazine in hallucinations, haloperidol are given in moderate doses (always with vitamins). Mannitol, lasix and cocarboxylase, ascorbic acid, euphyllin are good for brain swelling. When the liver is damaged, methionine, essential 3–4 times a day. In alcoholic encephalopathy, along with vitamins, piracetam, aminazine, encephabol, asefen, drugs that improve blood circulation in the brain - cavinton, stugeron or sinnarizine, sermion are prescribed. Alcoholism treatment can be started a few months after the psychosis is over.
Addiction - Occurs as a result of the body's habituation to toxins. Drugs are mainly substances that are fun to use once, and physical and mental addiction when used chronically. Continuous drug use leads to addiction. When drugs are used, they mainly affect the nervous system and disrupt its functioning. That is, it leads to a decrease in the ability to remember, think, feel, speak, as a result of which they lose the ability to work. When drugs are re-used, the body develops a state of mind, that is, a state of pleasure and intoxication with these substances. At the same time, especially children lose interest in reading. Physical addiction As a result of an increase in the body's addiction to drugs, the body may not function normally if the drug is not consumed. As a result, there is severe pain in the joints of the limbs, muscles, tremors, fatigue. Patients have anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headache, frequent diarrhea, severe fear. These cases pass quickly after taking the drug. As a result of chronic consumption of these substances, the body loses its physical aptitude, ie inability to control itself, and then the body does not function normally without these substances, not for pleasure. as a result, inability to stand. Chronic drug use has a detrimental effect on the body of a pregnant woman and the fetus. As a result, in the first trimester of fetal development, the nervous system, all the organs and tissues of the body are formed, which adversely affects the formation of birth defects. At the same time, the development of the fetus slows down, leading to premature miscarriage, stillbirth, mental retardation, birth defects. One of the factors that causes addiction is the social factor. These include the misbehavior of children in the family, the influence of smokers around them, and their curiosity, quick-temperedness, and avoidance of various difficulties. When you use drugs for a long time, you get used to it. After taking more painkillers (promedol, morphine, omnopon, barbiturates), the body becomes accustomed to it. If patients do not take such drugs, the body develops symptoms of abstinence (humor). These include headaches, lethargy, irritability, palpitations, mood swings, diarrhea, insomnia and panic attacks. During abstinence, patients try to obtain drugs and also commit crimes. Some patients are hospitalized to get rid of the pain. Unable to bear the pain, they ask to take morphine.
Patients addicted to drugs lose their appetite, dry skin, sneezing, tremors in the fingers, pain in the joints, sleep disturbances, heart palpitations, decreased ability to work and decreased willpower. observed. Patients often lie, laugh or cry, and have memory loss. If smoking can cause euphoria, rapid thinking, increased greed, illusions (a small ditch looks like a big ditch), nausea, laughter, thirst, hunger, severe asthenia in addiction - anxiety, muscle spasms, diarrhea , seizures, pronunciation disorders, tremors, loss of balance.
Addicts. As a result of the consumption of natural and artificial poisons, the body is prone to these substances, humor. This condition is most often seen in patients treated with psychotropic drugs for a long time. Humor in these drugs can cause headaches, dizziness, palpitations, tremors, anesthesia, seizures and psychosis. Long-term use of psychotropic drugs increases their resistance, mood swings (fear, insomnia, excessive sweating, tremors). When consuming drugs that stimulate brain activity (caffeine), patients experience symptoms such as rejuvenation, strength, relief. These conditions soon end in lethargy, depression, headache, and convulsions. Therefore, patients will have to take these drugs again. In addition, patients have temptations, auditory and visual hallucinations. Drugs for parkinsonism (cyclodol, parkopan, romparkin, artan) in large doses cause euphoria, intoxication, hallucinations in patients. Overdose of these substances is accompanied by frightening visual hallucinations, delirium or auditory hallucinations, sharp sensations, psychosis with temptation to chase. In the state of humor, there are tremors of the hands and body, muscle pain and cramps, rapid heartbeat, pain in the joints and spine, signs of anxiety, fear. The smell of gasoline, paints, varnishes, glues, creams often leads to acute respiratory poisoning, intoxication. This causes euphoria, hallucinations. If patients do not take these substances for 2-3 days, it can lead to palpitations, changes in blood pressure, hand tremors, squash, swelling in the body. After 5-7 days there are symptoms of depression, apathy, lethargy, asthenia.
The cure. The disease is treated in 3 stages. 1. Release of toxic toxins in the body as a result of infusion of liquids, general strengthening and rejuvenation of the body, cessation of drug use.
2. Methods directed against drugs. 3. Methods of treatment of humor. In cases of humor, the sedative pyrroxan is prescribed, which reduces insomnia and cravings for drugs. The drug is given for 5-7 days. Elenium, seduxen, sibazon, relanium, rudotel are used in anxiety, worry, fear, insomnia and vegetative changes. Tazepam, nozepam, frenalone, galoperidol in depression; In case of drug humor, sulfazine 5,0-10,0 ml should be given once a day for 2-4 days. The course of treatment should be repeated 1-5 times. Pyrogenal 6–250 mpd kunora, 1000% sodium thiosulfate 30–5 ml, magnesium sulfate, unitiol, vitamins; In asthenic cases 10,0 g of calcium glycerophosphate, 0,2 g of phytin is given to drink 0,25 times a day. In anxiety and insomnia, teaser, diphenhydramine, pipolfen and 3% 2,5-1,0 ml of aminazine are given daily for 3,0-5 days. In addition, electric sleep, psychotherapy, keeping the feet in warm water give good results.
Smoking (kashandalik). It is the most common and widespread harmful practice in the daily life of many peoples around the world. Smoking is more common among men and women, as well as among young people and children. The habit of smoking among women leads to an increase in various hereditary and hereditary diseases among this population. The poison that enters the body when you smoke is nicotine. During smoking, the body gradually becomes accustomed to nicotine, and there are no cases of acute poisoning in smokers. Nicotine primarily affects the nervous system. People who try to smoke for the first time may suddenly experience nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, tinnitus, rapid heartbeat, cold sweats, pale skin, drowsiness, and weakness. ladi.
People who smoke develop a number of diseases of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract. Smoking aggravates the disease and delays its recovery. Smoking leads to atherosclerosis, heart attack, myocardial infarction. It is important in the onset of ischemic heart disease. It makes it difficult for oxygen to come in and combine with hemoglobin. Therefore, the transfer of oxygen to the tissues is reduced. Leads to an increase in chronic bronchitis. Gastric or peptic ulcer: It is twice as common in smokers as in non-smokers.
Smoking disrupts the acid-base balance, which leads to an increase in the acidic environment of the stomach and ulcers. When women smoke during pregnancy, nicotine affects the development of the fetus, leading to premature miscarriage, stillbirth, and stillbirth. According to the World Health Organization, in countries where smoking is common, cancer is on the rise and deaths are on the rise. Smokers also have a detrimental effect on the people around them. Tobacco smoke can cause heart attacks or shortness of breath in patients with asthma.
The cure consists of:
- elimination of nicotine abstinence and a negative reaction to the smell of tobacco;
- Consolidation of the achieved results and continuation of supportive medications. Symptoms of abstinence when smoking is stopped: a decrease in mental and physical ability to work, lethargy, depression, sleep disturbances, agitation, headaches, tinnitus. In smokers, these conditions pass during smoking.
Psychotherapy, reflexology, physiotherapy are used in combination with drugs for people who quit smoking. Medications include tabex, lobesil, pilocarpine, which reduce nicotine levels. Seduxen, tazepam, phenazepam, etaperazine, neuleptil, teralen are prescribed to suppress the urge to smoke. In addition, giving neuroleptics gives good results. In case of laziness, vitamins are recommended.