Circle papers on biology. Outline and plan


Sharipova Baroning, teacher of biology at the 2nd general secondary school under the public education department of Okdaryo district
"Yosh BIOLOG" Circle documents volume
Sharipova Baroning, teacher of biology at the 2nd general secondary school under the public education department of Okdaryo district
Plan of "Young Biologist" Circle
 Subject of training.
The date of transfer
Biological science, objects of study. System of biological sciences.
Working with riddles related to the science of biology
About botany. History of development of botanical science in Uzbekistan
Life forms of plants
Changes in the life of plants in autumn
Solving tests on learned knowledge and their analysis
The cell and its organelles. Fabric and its types.
Life processes in the cell. Breathing
Root types and systems. Root fruits.
Bud, stem, branch. Growth of the stem in width and height
Movement of nutrients in the stem. Internal structure of the stem.
Underground stems that have changed shape. Nodule. Rootstock. Onion head
Internal and external structure of leaves
Arrangement of leaves on a branch. Simple and complex burs
Photosynthesis. Leaf respiration and water evaporation
Reproduction of plants by vegetative means
The structure of the flower. Variety of flowers
Flowers and their types.
Pollination of flowers. Fertilization
Conducting a test based on the learned knowledge and analyzing it
Types of fruits. Importance of fruits in nature
The seed Seed composition. Seed respiration.
Germination of seeds. Tumor
Systematics of plants.
Structure, types, importance of bacteria
Disease-causing bacteria
Structure of fungi. Mold fungus. Yeast fungi
Cap fungi. Parasitic fungi
Structure and importance of lichens
Unicellular, multicellular and marine algae.
Conducting a test and analyzing it
Living life of the mosses. Funerary moss
Field sedge, sedge and water sedge
Juniper. Pine.
Indoor plants.
Classes of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants
Topic: Learning objects of biological science. System of biological sciences.
Course Objectives:Studying the science of biology, its study methods and the system of biological sciences. Studying the systems of botany, zoology, anatomy, physiology, ecology, cytology and other biological sciences.
Course Outline:The word biology means "bios" - life, "logos" - science. Biology studies all living organisms on earth, their structure, way of life, life processes, etc. Living organisms can be divided into four large groups. 1. Bacteria. 2. Fungi. 3. Plants. 4. Animals. Biological science is a very large science and consists of several systems of sciences. These are as follows:
Botany-The science that studies plants.
microbiology- science that studies microorganisms
mycology-Fungi science
Zoology-science that studies animals
Cytology- studies the cell and its parts
Anatomy-studies the internal structure of organisms
Physiology- studies life processes in organisms
Morphology-studies the external structure of organisms
ecology- studies the distribution of organisms
Ichthyology-feeds fish
Bryology-studies algae, etc. The objects of study of biology are all living organisms. They live in all places on the earth's surface, both in the air shell several kilometers deep, in the water depths several meters deep, and between several layers of sedimentary layers. it can also be found in glaciers or hot deserts. At the same time, their size is different. Among them, there are microorganisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye, and very large plants and several tons of animals. All of them are adapted to their living environment in different ways. The system of biological sciences, together with their internal and external structure, also studies the life processes that take place in them, the signs of their various adaptations to the living environment. One of the important tasks facing the science of biology today is the effective use of all living organisms in order to ensure a prosperous future for mankind. Protecting humanity from various diseases. Preventing possible food shortages. Welcome to interesting biology lessons!
Home task to give: Studying the topic. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Working with riddles related to biology.
Course Objectives: To increase students' interest in science by working with biology riddles.
Course Outline: 1. Clothes from mother - my head,
I am fat from my child. (Cotton)
  1. He has more than one eye,
It has a face like an apple. (potatoes)
  1. It is like a cocoon,
The inside is like gold. (Peanut)
  1. As long as there is a drop at the bottom of the water,
Find out what kind of living soul it is. ( Amoeba )
5. Grass-colored dwarf eye,
He has a smile, he has an eye. ( Green euglena )
  1. We put some hay in the water,
We took a drop of that water.
Seeing a living soul in it,
We were all surprised. (Shoe)
  1. Ten servants for a little,
What prey does he need? (Hydra)
8. Umbrella-like body,
If you touch it, it will cry. ( Jellyfish )
  1. As you know,
The head is fine. (Ant)
  1. There is a coin, not money.
It has wings, it cannot fly. ( Fish )
  1. There is a frog in the head - a frog,
Time does not stop. (frog)
  1. A long, long trail remains
Who passed by in a dice shirt. (Snake)
  1. I saw a crawling stone,
I saw the head that came out of the stone. (Turtle)
Homework assignment: Rediscovering biology riddles.
Topic: About botany. History of development of botanical science in Uzbekistan
Course Objectives:Learning the purpose and tasks of botany, the history of its development.
Course Outline:
"Botany" means "botane" in Greek - green, herb, plant. This science studies the emergence, life, external structure, development, distribution of plants, their connection with nature, their rational use and methods of protection. It has been determined that there are 4500 species of tall plants that grow naturally in Uzbekistan, 8000 species in Central Asia, and more than 500000 species on earth. Food, clothes, building materials, household items and other things are made from them.
Natural plants have been studied in Central Asia for a long time. In the books of Abu Rayhan Beruni devoted to medicine, "Kitab al-Saydana fit-tibb", Abu Ali ibn Sina "Laws of Medicine", "Kitab ush-shifa", Mahmud Kashgari's "Devoni lug`atit turk" books. There is information about plants. On the comprehensive study of natural plants of Uzbekistan, the employees of the Institute of Botany of the RFA carried out scientific research of theoretical and practical importance and published multi-volume works reflecting their results. Korovin, Granitov, Rusanov, professors Orifhonova, Sakhobiddinov, Pratov and others contribute by writing textbooks and other works along with scientific research. Plant species under threat of extinction in Uzbekistan are included in the "Red Book" of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Homework assignment: To read and study the subject, to find additional information on the subject.
    Topic: Life forms of plants.
Course Objectives: Learning about trees, shrubs, semi-shrubs, perennial grasses, biennial grasses, annual grasses, their living conditions and characteristics.
Course Outline:
Trees are tall perennial herbs with a woody trunk, strong roots and wide branches. M: Apples, peaches, walnuts, pine, poplar, boxwood, etc. A baobab tree that grows in Africa lives for 4000-5000 years, juniper, cypress - 1000 years, false chestnut 2000 years, maple 800 years and others.
Shrubs are branchy perennial plants with a woody stem, which does not exceed 2-3 m in height and produces one or more stems. Examples of these are plants such as irgai, ginseng, namatak, zirk, almond, three-leaf clover, pomegranate, lemon, carob, ligustrum, nastarin, which are widely distributed on the slopes of the mountains.
Yarimbuta include izen, keyreuk, teresken, sarsazan and shuvok.
Perennial grasses include plants such as alfalfa, ajrik, gumay, sachratqi, piskom onion, kikikot, sallagul, kakiot, sweet fruit, ilok, tulip, reed, andiz, mint, cowrak, gulsafsar. .
Biennial grasses - these include beets, carrots, turnips, cow's tail and others.
Annual grasses include cotton, wheat, barley, flax, peanut, mush, peas, rice, tomato, pepper, melon, watermelon, basil and others.
 Thus, flowering plants are composed of trees, shrubs, semi-shrubs, perennial, two-year and one-year herbs according to their life forms.
Homework assignment: Study the topic. Find interesting information about biology.
Topic: Changes in the life of plants in autumn
The purpose of the lesson: Learning about the changes in plants in autumn
Course Outline:
Autumn is the season when many crops ripen. According to the calculations of scientists, the autumnal equinox falls on September 23. With the arrival of autumn, the days gradually start to cool.
It is not possible to know that autumn has come by looking at all the plants, because some flowering plants bloom even in the autumn months. For example: from wild plants zubturum, kokiot, sachartqi, koypechak; Among cultivated plants, rose, chrysanthemum, potato flower, etc. continue to bloom even in the autumn months when the temperature is warm.
One of the important biological changes that occur in plants in the fall is khazonization. In some plants, flowering begins before frost. The leaves of some trees and shrubs begin to fall with the arrival of autumn, and those of some after the first frost. For example, the leaves of juniper, maple, almond, poplar, ataxia, thorn tree and ailant fall very early.
With the arrival of autumn, the days become shorter, and the light and temperature coming from the sun to the earth decrease. Due to the lack of light and temperature, serious physiological processes occur in the cell. As a result, chloroplasts, which give green color to leaves, are destroyed and become chromoplasts, and coloring substances accumulate in the cells, and green leaves gradually turn yellow, yellow-red, brown-red. In autumn, the fruits of many wild and cultivated plants ripen. But among them there are also many plants whose main part of the fruit ripens and the flowers open at the tip, like a grapevine.
With the arrival of autumn, the days become shorter, the light from the sun and the temperature decrease. When light and temperature decrease, serious physiological processes occur in cells. As a result, chloroplasts that give green color in leaves are destroyed and turn into chromoplasts, and coloring substances accumulate in cells, and green leaves gradually turn yellow.
Homework assignment: Study the topic. Find interesting information about biology
Topic: Cell and its organoids. Fabric and its types.
Course Objectives: cell, its structure. Study of tissues and their types, their functions.
Course Outline:
One of the most important common features of living things in nature is that they are made up of cells.
The science that studies the structure of the cell and gives a complete teaching about it is called cytology (from the Greek "cytos" - cell, logos - teaching).
The cell shell becomes clear and strong. Fiber gives it strength. The cell membrane surrounds the living part from the outside.
Cytoplasm is the main component of the cell. It is a colorless, clear, liquid or slimy, elastic substance that is constantly moving.
The nucleus is the most important component located almost in the middle of the cell. It plays a major role in cell division.
Plastids are one of the main living parts of the cell. Fungi, bacteria, slimes and blue-green algae do not have plastids. There are three types of plastids: leucoplasts, chromoplasts, chloroplasts. In the next 2 layers, it gives color to the plants (leaf, stem, flower, fruit).
A space filled with sap in the vacuole-cytoplasm. It has different forms. Cell juice contains 70-95% water and many dissolved minerals and organic substances such as protein, oil, shaker. According to the composition of this juice, the taste of fruits is sweet, sour, bitter.
A set of cells with a similar origin and performing a certain task is called a tissue. Plants have forming, covering, basic, separating, accumulating, conducting tissues.
Homework assignment: Studying the topic. Find interesting information about biology.
Topic: Solving tests on learned knowledge and their analysis
Course Objectives:Control and correction of learned knowledge.
The progress of the lesson. Test questions.
1. What is the meaning of the word botany? A) grass, greenery B) globe C) studying nature D) Air B
2. Where do the nuts grow, whose fruit ripens for decades and weighs up to 10 kg? A) Canary Islands B) Seychelles C) Central Asia D) Canada
3. Identify wild forage plants.
A) silen, ilok, keyreuk B) beda, gumoy, ajriq C) tumchagul, shura, sallagul D) A,B, C
4. Mark the plants included in the "Red Book" of Uzbekistan.
A) ituzum, salamalaykum, mint B) rose, chrysanthemum, chive C) tulip, shirach, sallagul D) A, C
5. How many types of flowering plants are found in Central Asia?
A)1000 B)2000 C)3000 D)4000
6. How many types of flowering plants are found in Uzbekistan?
A)10000 B)8000 C)6000 D)4000
7. List the organs of flowering plants. A) flower, seed, fruit B) root, rhizome, nodule
C) stem, branch, leaf, bud D) root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit
8. Perennial plants with strong roots, one thick stem, and broad branches are what life forms of plants. A) tree B) bush C) perennial grass D) annual grass
9. Mark cultural bushes. 1.
A) 1,2,3, 4, 5, B) 6, 1, 3 C) 5, 7, 2, 4 D) 6, 8, XNUMX, XNUMX
10. The longest tree growing in Uzbekistan. A) willow B) maple C) mirzaterak D) namatak
11. Identify biennial grasses. 1. turnip, 2. turnip 3. apple 4. tomato 5. radish 6. jag`-jag` 7. radish
  1. A) 1, 3, 5, 7 B) 1,2,3,4 C) 2,4,6, 7 D) 1, 2, 5, 7
12. Identify the plants whose above-ground part of the plant dries up in winter, and the underground part continues to grow.
A) Turnip, radish B) Ghee, yulg C) mint, guamo D) tomato cucumber
13. Mark the trees. 1. Apple 2. Pomegranate 3. Maple 4. Poplar 5. Poplar 6. Izen 7. Willow 8. Willow
A) 1, 3, 5, 7 B) 2, 4, 6, 8 C) 1, 2, 3, 4 D) 5, 6, 7, 8
14. Select semi-shrubs. 1. Apple 2. Pomegranate 3. Maple 4. Namatak 5. Izen 6. Keyreuk 7. Sarsazan
A) 1, 3, 5, B) 2, 4, 6, C) 1, 2, 3, 4 D) 5, 6, 7,
15. Plants such as tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, pumpkins are examples of what life form?
A) tree B) bush C) two-year grass D) one-year grass
16. How many times can magnifier magnify objects? A) 3-5 B) 10-25 C) 1000 D) 100000
17. Mark the plants that continue to grow even under the snow in winter. 1. brine 2. tomato
3. Wheat 4. Tomato 5. Onion 6. Cotton A) 1.2 B) 3,4 C) 5,6 D) 2,5
18. Mark the magnifying devices.
  1. A) telescope, microscope B) magnifier, microscope C) tripod magnifier, hand magnifier D) B and C
19. Identify the cultural plants that bloom in late autumn.
A) chrysanthemum, rose B) marigold, violet C) tulip, yellow D) all.
  1. Green plastic. A chromoplast) B) chloroplast C) leucoplast D) all
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology
Topic: Life processes in the cell. Breathing
Course Objectives: to study the knowledge about the vital activity of the cell, the growth and division of the cell.
Course Outline: it can be seen in a preparation made from Elodia algae to observe the movement inside living cells. The continuous movement of cytoplasm is clearly visible in its cells. There are holes in the cell shell, and during the movement of the cytoplasm, nutrients and oxygen from one cell pass to the other cell through these holes. Each plant cell breathes and is fed to live. this process takes place in the cells under the influence of sunlight, water and various substances dissolved in it, and oxygen. One of the most important features of cells is their growth and division. Young cells are very small and become larger as they grow. It should be said that each cell grows to a certain size. The shell of cells thickens depending on age. In old cells, the vacuole occupies more space than the cytoplasm. Over time, in old cells, the cytoplasm and nucleus are completely lost, and their place is replaced by water or air. As a result, they die. Cells multiply by division. It should also be said that not all cells divide. Only the cells at the growth point divide. The nucleus plays a major role in cell division. The cell divides mainly in three different ways: amitosis, mitosis, and meiosis. In dividing cells, the nucleus first enlarges, then divides into two and they are covered with a special membrane. During this period, a barrier also appears in the cytoplasm, dividing the mother cell into two young cells. When the cell divides, the plastids in it also divide into two equal parts and pass to the young cells. The formed young cells continue to grow at the expense of nutrients. When they reach the size of the mother cell, they are divided into young cells again.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Root types and systems. Root fruits.
Course Objectives:Studying the root, its structure, types and systems.
Course Outline: The root is an organ of the plant that connects the stem or trunk with the ground, absorbs water and nutrients dissolved in the soil and delivers them to the surface part of the plant. Its important feature is that it does not produce leaves. Roots are usually divided into main, side and additional roots. The main root is formed from the growth of the initial root in the bush. The main root branches and forms lateral roots. The set of main, side and additional roots in one plant is called root system (system). According to the structure of the root system, it is divided into taproot and taproot.
If the primary root in the bush continues to grow during the development, an arrow root system is formed from it. This adaptation is characteristic of most dicotyledonous plants.
The axial root system is long and thick, and lateral roots grow from it. This root system is characteristic of dicotyledonous plants, and it can be seen in the examples of hawthorn, sedge, saxophone and cultivated plants.
Popuk root system consists of a bunch of small roots that are similar to each other. Its main root does not develop well. Such roots are mostly found in monocots.
Roots growing from the part of the stem close to the ground or touching the ground form additional roots. An example of these are the roots of plants such as corn, potato, ajrig, strawberry. Roots have different forms according to their function. Such roots are called metamorphosed roots. Examples of these are red beets, carrots, radishes, radishes, turnips, etc. They are called roots because they are used for food.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Bud, stem, branch. Stem growth in width and height
Course Objectives:Studying the stem and its structure, the bud and its types, the structure and types of branches
Course of the lesson: Proot is the central support organ that connects all the above ground organs of the plant and connects them with the root. In a one-year tree that produces buds and leaves, the place where the leaf joins is called a joint, and the part between two leaves is called a joint. In the axils of the leaves, one or several buds are placed. The bud is the primary branch. Vegetative bud is the initial leafy branch of plants. And generative bud is a flower and two inflorescences. Buds are small, large and different in shape. , apricots, apples, etc. have small buds. The buds located at the end of the branch are called tip buds, and the buds located next to them are called side buds. You can see the inner stem and densely located primary leaves. Scientists say that the buds grow better if they pass the winter dormancy period. The cells in the upper part are richer in nutrients, the faster they grow. That's why plants start to grow faster in spring as the air warms under the influence of sunlight. With the arrival of spring and the start of the movement of sap, the nutrients reach the cambium as well as all the organs. The cells of the cambium begin to divide. The division continues in this way. The division continues in this way and the stem becomes wider.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Movement of nutrients in the stem. Internal structure of the stem.
The purpose of the lesson: To study the movement of nutrients, mineral substances and organic substances in the stem, and the internal structure of the stem.
The course: Like all living things, plants are alive with nutrients. Water containing mineral salts moves through the wood from the roots to the leaves. Nutrients move along the sieve tubes in the pulp. it accumulates in different parts of the plant. Sugar accumulates in the roots of some plants, for example, carrots and beets, and in the fruits and seeds of others. It turns into starch in the tuber of potatoes.
The surface of the stem is covered with the epidermis consisting of a single layer of cells. Under the epidermis is the skin parenchyma (main tissue) made of many layers of living cells.
The layer under the skin is phloem, inside it is the cambium, and after the cambium is the wood (xylem), in the middle of which there is a core.
The bark layer is thick on the trunk and old branches. The thick bark protects the living cells inside from winter cold, summer heat and various harmful diseases.
Lube fibers are well developed in hemp and flax stems, and they are used to make yarn, rope, sacks, and gauze. Between the lube fibers, there are long, thin tubes divided by perforated walls. They are They are called sieve-like tubes. The wood layer is made up of cells of different shapes and sizes. There are long tubes in the wood, through which water and salts dissolved in it spread from the root to all the organs of the plant. The inner smooth, moist and sticky part of the bark separated from the branch contains cell sap (cytoplasm). Bark and among the wood, young, thin cells form the cambium layer.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Underground stems that have changed shape. Nodule. Stem. Onion head
The purpose of the lesson: Studying the shape of underground branches, nodules, rhizomes, bulbs and their structure.
The course: The deformed underground branches have important biological value. The deformed underground branches are formed under the ground, and buds are formed in them like branches. Such branches include bulbs, nodules, and rhizomes. Plants with underground branches that have changed in shape include onions, garlic onions, anzur onions, tulips, and marigolds. Plants that produce onions in the soil are called bulbous plants. In Central Asia, especially in the mountainous regions of Uzbekistan, many types of wild onions grow. and the plants include gumoy, agaric, reed, mint, cauliflower, and licorice. turns into sugar. Their buds are fed with this sugar solution and grow.
Ilthe stems have additional roots, leaves and buds that have changed in shape. From these buds, a new underground stem grows under favorable conditions. It is a perennial herb with a thick rhizome. The stem is 50-150 cm high. The leaves are pencil-shaped. It reproduces from the rhizome and seeds. The rhizome serves for the vegetative reproduction of plants. A large amount of nutrients are collected in the rhizomes. It should also be said that the rhizome has additional roots characteristic of the branch, the shape has changed there will be leaves and buds.
Thus, the tuber, rhizome and onion head are formed by the change of the shape of the underground branches.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Internal and external structure of leaves
Course Objectives: Studying the external and internal structure of leaves
Course Outline:A leaf is a part of a branch, the main vegetative organ that creates organic substances, evaporates water and breathes based on important vital processes in plants (photosynthesis). Some plants have side leaves at the bottom of the leaf band. The leaves of some plants are unattached. Unattached leaves are attached to the lower part of the leaf of the stem. Unattached leaves include tulips, safflower, corn, barley, rice, etc. Allotment leaves are widely distributed in nature. For example: apple, apricot, pear, poplar, walnut, fig, vine, cucumber, melon, fruit and fruit crops, leaves of ornamental plants are included. Leaves are made of cells, like all the organs of the plant. What cells and tissues are made of leaves can be seen only under a microscope. The upper and back sides of the leaf sheath are covered with skin. Its cells are densely packed. Almost all the cells of the leaf sheath are transparent, and light passes through them into the leaf. In the leaf skin, there are bean-shaped double cells, which also contain green plastids. They are called leaf mouths. There are leaf tissue cells between the skin of the leaf. They are composed of shell, cytoplasm, core, and chlorophyll grains. Leaf tissue cells are located in several layers. composed of cells. At its base there are cells of oval and round shape. You can see the veins in the cross section of the leaves. Inside them are tubes consisting of thick-walled dead cells. In addition to the tubes, there are also cells in the veins that are connected to each other in the form of a long chain. These cells form sieve-like tubes that are connected to each other through a large number of holes like a net. Water and dissolved nutrients move in the veins of the leaf.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
       Topic: Location of leaves on a branch. Simple and complex leaves
Course Objectives:To study the location of the leaves in a row, forming opposite groups, the types of leaves.
Course Outline:The leaves of plants are placed in a certain order on the branch. They are mainly placed alternately, oppositely, and forming a circle. The plants whose leaves are placed alternately on the branch include cotton, vine, tomato, apple, apricot, include poplar, mulberry, rose, white oak, hawthorn.
If the leaves are located opposite each other on both sides of each joint in the stem or branch, such leaves are called opposite leaves. These include basil, mint, cloves, sedum, marigold, gazanda, and elderflower. if several leaves form a ring at each joint, it is called a ring arrangement. It includes the likes of Kumrio`t.
The leaves of plants are divided into simple and complex leaves according to their structure. If there is one leaf in a leaf band, it is called a simple leaf. These include apple, pear, apricot, peach, mulberry, vine, cotton, poplar, rhubarb, If several leaves are arranged in one leaf band, such leaves are called compound leaves. These include licorice, alfalfa, false chestnuts, walnuts, chestnuts, strawberries, beans, peas, peanuts, etc. pencil, rhomboid, triangle and other shapes. According to the structure of the leaves, ordinary leaves are feather-like, claw-like and three-lobed. Compound leaves are three-petaled, odd and double pinnate. Three-leaved compound leaves include sebarga, alfalfa, bean, mash, and false chestnut leaves.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Photosynthesis. Leaf respiration and water evaporation
Course Objectives:Studying the formation of organic matter in plants, leaf respiration and water evaporation.
Course Outline:The process of the formation of organic substances from inorganic substances and the release of oxygen into the air by plants under the influence of sunlight and the participation of chlorophyll particles is called photosynthesis. "- means to add, combine. The Russian scientist Temiryazyev based his book "Sun, Life and Chlorophyll" on the process of photosynthesis. It is known that plants absorb water and dissolved minerals from the soil through root hairs. Along with water, carbon dioxide gas enters the leaf cells from the air through the stomata. Organic substances are formed with the presence of chlorophyll particles in the cells of leaf tissue and under the influence of light. In this process, carbon dioxide combines with water in the chlorophyll granules. As a result, first sugar and then starch are formed. Organic substances formed with the presence of chlorophyll particles dissolve in water. They pass from the cells of the flesh of the leaf to the sieve tubes of the veins, through which they spread to all organs - flowers, seeds, fruits, and roots. In the process of photosynthesis, organic substances are formed in green leaves, as well as the process of respiration. In this, they, like animals, absorb oxygen from the air and release carbon dioxide. A plant is a whole organism. All its living cells breathe and grow. One of the important processes in the life of plants is water evaporation. Due to water evaporation, the absorption of water and mineral salts through the roots accelerates. These substances move along the stem. Water evaporation protects plant organs from overheating. Water evaporates through the pores on the leaves. Depending on the type of plants and where they grow, they evaporate the water they get from the soil at different levels. Because the leaves of some desert plants have become very small (in saxophones) or have changed their shape and turned into thorns (in cacti).
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Reproduction of plants by vegetative means
Course Objectives:study of vegetative reproduction of natural and cultivated plants.
Course Outline:Vegetative organs of flowering plants include roots, stems, and leaves. These organs play a major role in plant nutrition. Another feature of them is that some plants multiply due to these organs. Reproduction of plants through roots, stems, nodules, bulbs, branches and leaves is called vegetative reproduction. Plants such as ajriq, gumai, salomalaikum, and wheat multiply through rhizomes. Tulips, gladiolus, marigolds grow from bulbs. New branches are formed from the buds of the roots of such plants as blackberry, poplar, namatak, olvoli, shirminiya, yantak. These branches are called rhizomes. People have been interested in vegetative propagation of cultivated plants since ancient times. Many cultivated plants are propagated from buds, branches, and leaves. For example, figs, pomegranates, vines, poplars, currants, raspberries, currants, roses, and most of the flowers grown in greenhouses are propagated from cuttings.
When welding It is understood to attach a certain part of one plant to another plant in different ways. There are many methods of grafting. A cutting with a bud cut for grafting is called grafting. A seedling grown for grafting is called grafting. For grafting, one-year, sun-baked branches with dormant buds are cut. It is cut in the shape of the letter "T" with a sharp knife. The bark of the cut area is gradually stretched. - it is known that it is not finished in 6-10 days. This welding is mainly done in August.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: The structure of a flower. Variety of flowers
Course Objectives:Flower structure
Course Outline:A flower is an organ of sexual reproduction of angiosperms, and it is a branch with a changed shape. It is made up of a flower, a flower, a pollinator and a seed. The flower of the plant is attached to the stem by a band and it is called a flower band. There is a slightly widened area at the top of the flower. All the parts of the flower are placed in it. In nature, there are also sessile flowers without developed petals.
The flower consists of the following 4 parts.
The calyx is the layer that surrounds the flower from the outside. It consists of petals. The vase is green and other colors.
The corolla is the layer of the corolla located inside the calyx of the flower. It consists of a collection of corolla leaves. The corolla is of different colors.
Changchi is made up of a duster and a duster thread.
The seed is the most important part located in the middle of the flower. It consists of a node, a column, and a beak.
Flowers are unisexual or bisexual. If a flower contains only a seed or pollinator, such a flower is called a unisexual flower. If there are only pollinators in a flower, it is called a pollinator flower, and if there are only seeds, it is called a seed-bearing flower. If there are both pollinators and seeds in one flower, such a flower is called a bisexual flower. The flowers of most plants are bisexual. Some plants have separate pollinating and seed-bearing flowers on the same bush. Such plants are called monoecious plants. If the pollinated flowers of one type of plant are on another bush, and the seed-bearing flowers are on a separate bush, such plants are called dioecious plants.
Flowers are divided into straight and curved flowers. If a flower is divided into more than two equal parts, it is called a straight flower. If the flower is divided into two equal parts or not at all, it is called a crooked flower.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Flowers and their types.
Course Objectives:Studying flowers and their types. To learn to distinguish the flowers of naturally growing plants from each other.
Course of the lesson: If If there are several flowers in one common branch (peduncle), it is called a flower. The flowers are different. For example, sota, shingil, kuchala, umbrella, rovak, basket, head and others. The pollination of the flower largely depends on the inflorescence. They pollinate better than ordinary flowers. Inflorescences are simple and complex. In a simple inflorescence, the peduncle does not branch, and in a complex inflorescence it branches. The inflorescence of apple, pear, cherry and cherry is simple shield-shaped.
Cabbage,flowers of radish, jag-jag, and wormwood are united in a row with a long band on the inflorescence. This is called a simple shingle.
carrot, dill, parsley, chives and dill have a complex canopy of branches. In most spiked plants (wheat, barley, rye, wheat), two or three flowers unite to form a simple spike. Several of these spikes join together to form a complex spike. Plants such as vine rice, reeds, nastarin, bride's broom, sorrel, and gorse create a complex shingle mulch.
Nuts, walnuts, and the dusty crown of the willow looks like an ear of corn. But mainly, it differs from them in that its gulpoya hangs down.
Kungabogar, potato flower, wormwood, botokoz, sachartqi. The flowers of plants such as ermon and carrack are mainly located in baskets inside the peduncle. The baskets are surrounded by rolled leaves.
In addition to them, there is also a fig plant whose flower is not very noticeable.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Pollination of flowers. Fertilization
Course Objectives: Studying the process of pollination and fertilization of flowers, their importance in the life of plants.
Course Outline: Pollination is the fall of mature pollen in the anther to the tip of the seed. Pollen mainly comes to the beak of the seed by insects, wind, and other means. Pollination is divided into external pollination, self-pollination, and artificial pollination. , pear, alfalfa, aqquray, cotton etc. The flowers of wind-pollinated plants are invisible, small and odorless. These include wheat, barley, rice, oats, willow, poplar, walnut, and others. Wind-pollinated plants first bloom and then produce leaves.
Fertilization is the process of fusion of germ cells in pollinator and seed. Dust has different shapes and sizes depending on the type of plants. Each dust grain is composed of large (vegetative) and small (generative) cells. The dust caught in the muzzle gradually begins to grow. Its vegetative cell grows and forms a long and thin tube. The second divides and forms two sperms. The pollen tube grows rapidly and goes to the seed node. The two formed spermatozoa go through the pollen tube and enter the seed pod. At this time, the ovum and the central cell are matured in the embryo. One of the sperms joins with the egg cell and the other with the central cell. This process is called double fertilization in flowering plants.
Fertilized cells begin to divide many times. From the fertilized ovule, the embryo develops, and from the fertilized central cell, the endosperm develops. If there is only one seed bud in the node, after it is fertilized, a one-seeded fruit will be formed. If there are many seed buds, then a multi-seeded fruit will be formed.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: conducting a test based on the learned knowledge and analyzing it
The purpose of the lesson; Repeating, checking and correcting the knowledge learned during the activity of the club.
GiveProgress of s: Tests.
1. What should be done so that the plants grow well and give a lot of crops?
A) tilling the ground in autumn B) fertilizing the soil
 C) softening the base of the plant D) all
2. How many types of fertilizers are there. A) 2 types: organic and mineral B) 3 types: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus
  1. C) 2 types: manure and saltpetre D) A and B
3. Which mineral fertilizer helps the plant to increase its yield and ripen quickly?
A) nitrogenous B) phosphorous C) potassium D) saltpeter
  1. Mark the roots. A) potatoes, carrots, turnips
B) onion, radish, cabbage C) corn, radish, turnip D) radish, radish, carrot
5. What kind of life form do most vegetables have?
A) one-year grass B) two-year grass C) bush D) tree
6. What is the annual branch of plants called?
  1. A) bud B) stem C) flower D) all
7. Which plants have big shoots? A) willow, poplar B) maple, mulberry
 C) rose, rhododendron D) all
8. What is the location of buds on a branch called? A) a joint B) a joint I
C) branch D) branch
9. What does not fit in the stem?
A) root B) leaf C) stem D) flower
10. A plant with a flexible stem. A) vine B) willow C) poplar D) strawberry
11. Name the plant with the longest stem. A) poplar B) eucalyptus C) sequoiadendron
D) Rattan palm
12. Which plant has a creeping stem? A) vine B) willow C) poplar D) strawberry
  1. Where do the cells in the root breathe air?
  2. A) in the soil. B) in the water. C) is an air-filled space between the cells, and the cells in the root breathe with this air. D) from the atmosphere.
  3. A plant whose stem is under the water and whose flower opens on the surface of the water?
  4. A) Gumay. B) Water sumac. C) Victoria region. D) Lilufar.
  5. The main part of the fruit is ripe, and the flowers at the tip are opening
in which line is the name of the plant given? A) ituzum. B) gumay C) rice. D) wheat
16. At the expense of what does the stem grow in width?
17. What can be determined by the number of annual rings of the saxovul plant?
A) age B) hot or cold spring C) north side D) annual rainfall
18. What is included in the underground branches that have changed in shape? onion ,1
19. Which plants form nodules? A) hello, potato, sweet potato B) onion, radish, turnip
C) sorghum, wheat, corn D) all
20. In which plants are the fibers well developed? A) willow, poplar B) sycamore, mulberry C) birch, gumoy
D) hemp, flax
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Types of fruits. Importance of fruits in nature
Course Objectives:Learning the variety, types and importance of fruits.
Course Outline:In flowering plants, after fertilization, fruit is formed. Fruits are mainly of two types. 1. If it is formed from the node itself, it is called true fruit (apricot, cherry, peach, plum, cherry). 2. If in addition to the node, other parts of the flower are also involved in the formation of the fruit, it is called a false fruit (apple, pear, quince). If the middle part of the fruit is thin and thick, such fruits are called wet fruits. If the intermediate part is thin, fleshy, dry, such fruits are called dry fruits. There are different kinds of fruits.
Berries:Grapes, tomatoes, currants, ituzum. Squash fruits: pumpkin, melon, watermelon, gooseberries. Grain fruits: apricots, plums, cherries, cherries.
Non-cheating fruits: wheat, barley, oat corn. Nuts: mush, beans, radish, radish, jag-jag. Nuts: goza, tulip, sorghum. Legumes: peas, beans, mush. , and volatile fruits are scattered.
First of all, fruits are necessary for the reproduction of plants, for spreading, for reproduction. Since ancient times, fruits have been used directly in the preparation of food and medicines. Fruits of spice plants are used in the preparation of any food. Some of them are used to make jewelry. M: rosary beads, soap beads, pepper beads. Fruits should be picked only when they are ripe. Fodder plants are harvested for fodder every year, at the time of flowering. Detachment of plants from the upper part of the earth, death of flowers without producing seeds causes the decrease of plants in nature. In nature, the seeds of each type of plant must ripen and fall to the ground and reproduce by itself.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Seed. Seed composition. Seed respiration.
Course Objectives:Studying the structure, composition and respiration of seeds of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
Course Outline:A seed is a reproductive organ of plants. It consists of bract, seed and endosperm. The seeds of each plant are unique. Plants are divided into monocots and dicots depending on the seed coat. The seeds of two-cot plants have two seed coats and a pod. A shrub consists of a rhizome, a stem and two leaves. The seeds of dicotyledonous plants reach the ground with two cotyledonous leaves. The seed of monocotyledons consists of one cotyledon, the initial root, stem, and bud in the bush. Depending on the type of plant, the composition of the seed is different. Despite its dry appearance, it contains a small amount of There will be water as well as organic substances and mineral substances. Organic substances in seeds are in the form of various compounds. These include starch, protein and oils. There is a lot of starch in the seeds of wheat, corn and other grain crops. Beans, mung beans, and peas have protein. There is a lot of oil in the kernels of walnuts, almonds, apricots, peaches, and peanuts. The substances contained in the seeds are abundant in the seed coat and endosperm. Some seeds contain essential oils (cumin, basil, shivitda) and toxic substances (mastak, bitter almond, elderberry).
Like every cell of a green plant, a seed also breathes. The respiration of seeds takes place in different ways. If the same seeds retain their breathing properties for one year, the seeds of plants such as cranberry preserve for a hundred years. Seeds breathe while absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide, it releases water and heat. Therefore, the seeds intended for storage are stored in specially constructed dry and specially ventilated buildings.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Germination of seeds. Tumor
Course Objectives:Conditions for seed germination, necessary conditions, study of the tumor and its development.
Course Outline:Seeds ripen in different periods according to their biological characteristics and germinate in different conditions. The germination of seeds can be stored for one year in some plants, while in some plants it can be stored for 10-100 years. certain conditions are necessary for its release. First, they need to pass a certain period of rest. The seeds absorb water and begin to swell and grow under great pressure. It is under this pressure that the seed coat bursts. Water is not only for the swelling of the seeds, but also for the nutrition of the developing lawn. is also necessary for Because the nutrients in the seeds dissolve in it, that is, the starch turns into sugar. Air is also very necessary for the germination of the seeds. For the seeds to germinate evenly and quickly, the soil should be soft and moderately moist. seeds It is planted at different depths depending on the size. For example, carrot 0,5-2 cm, radish 1-3 cm, radish 2-3 cm, wheat 3-5 cm, cotton 6-7 cm, corn 6 It is planted at a depth of -10 cm. Another factor necessary for seed germination is temperature. Different plants require different temperatures for germination.
Niche-a short and thin plant that has just grown from a seed. Nutrients are necessary for the growth of the niche. These substances pass through the seed coat and endosperm to the niche. The more nutrients there are in the seed, the better the sprout will develop. That is the essence of sorting seeds. During growth, plant organs begin to form in the niche. Its young root penetrates the soil and side roots grow. Niche grows and gradually turns into grass. Grass begins to feed on the substances produced as a result of photosynthesis. As soon as the seed of monocot plants grows, the nutrients stored in the endosperm are used up and it becomes like an empty bag. In them, the leaf blade does not come to the surface of the soil, it remains in the soil.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Subject: Systematics of plants.
Course Objectives:To have knowledge about systematics of plants.
Course Outline:There are so many types of plants on the globe that only more than 500 of them are known to science. According to the degree of similarity of the signs that bring plants closer to each other, putting the world of plants into a certain order - system (system) is called plant systematics. The following systematic units are accepted in plant systematics: species, genus, family, class (ancestor), department, and plant world.
The smallest unit in plant systematics is the species.
Tur-all organs are similar to each other and include plants found in a certain area.
Category - to each other composed of close species.
In science, it is accepted to name plants by double (two) names - naming by the name of the species and the family (binary nomenclature). The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) was the first to introduce the naming of the species by two names.
In science, in addition to the local names of each species, there is also a "scientific" name. The scientific name of any plant can be found in special books (flora or plant identifier). Groups close to each other form a family. For example, groups such as almonds, apples, apricots, hawthorns, and hawthorns are combined to form a family of relatives. does. Since all the plants belonging to monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous classes are flowering plants, these two classes together form the division of flowering plants or angiosperms.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Topic: Structure, types, importance of bacteria
Course Objectives:Department of bacteria, studying their structure and life.
Course Outline:Small invisible creatures are called microbes, "micros" means small. Microbes were first seen under a microscope by A. Levenguk 300 years ago. Microbes are very diverse. Among them, the largest group is bacteria. The science that studies bacteria is called microbiology. A bacterium consists of a single cell, and its cell consists of only a thin shell and a semi-liquid cytoplasm inside it. In a bacterial cell, the nucleus is not clearly visible. Bacteria are mainly divided into three groups depending on the cell shape. 1. Spherical bacteria-cocci, 2. Rod-shaped bacteria- spirella. 3. Bent bacteria-spirilla. Bacteria mainly feed on ready-made organic substances. it feeds on substances and breaks them down into mineral substances. This process in nature is called the circulation of substances.
The bacteria that cause the process of decay are called putrefactive bacteria. The putrefactive bacteria living in the soil are called soil bacteria. The decomposition of nitrogen-free organic matter by bacteria is called fermentation. According to the method of nutrition, fermentative bacteria are saprophytes. Lactic acid fermentation is used for canning tomatoes, cucumbers and cabbage, making silage from fodder plants, making curd cheese, suzma. In addition, there are bacteria that live in the soil or in the roots of plants and absorb free nitrogen from the air. They live in the roots of legumes. An example of this is bacteria.
Homework assignment: Studying the subject. Finding interesting information about biology.
Subject: Disease-causing bacteria
The purpose of the lesson: to study bacteria that cause diseases in plants, animals and humans and methods of combating them.
Course Outline: Some bacteria live and feed in living plant, animal and human organism, in their cells. Such bacteria are called parasitic bacteria. As a result of their activity, various diseases appear in the plant, animal and human body, therefore, parasitic bacteria are also called disease-causing bacteria. it enters through food, water, wounds on the skin, lives at the expense of living cells, multiplies rapidly, and the toxic substances produced as a result of its activity pass into the blood. As a result, the body becomes poisoned and sick. Abu Ali Ibn Sino It was mentioned that it spread through the air about a thousand years ago. It is very important to keep cities and villages clean in the fight against disease-causing bacteria. Gladichia, juniper, walnut, and poplars release special substances (phytoncides) into the air, and these substances are present in the air. Scientists have found that it weakens disease-causing bacteria.
Among the bacteria that live in living plants, there is a disease known as cotton gommosis

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