Formation of the state of Amir Temur


Formation of the state of Amir Temur
Amir Temur played a major role in the establishment of a centralized state in Central Asia, the development of enlightenment.
      Timur moved from Kesh to Samarkand in order to create a centralized state under his rule, making it the capital of Movarounnahr. The Sahibkiran clearly felt the difficulty of liberating the people from oppression and establishing a centralized state in a place where long-term chaos reigned. provides benefits.
      Because Timur relied heavily on his own troops in government, domestic and foreign policy, he focused on military reform, including the selection of army commanders, units, their location, armament, and military discipline. He divided his armies into military formations such as tens, hundreds, thousands. For him, it was obligatory for every soldier to know the methods of fighting well. Amir Temur also paid great attention to the troops, believing that they should strictly follow the rules, be ruthless and brave in battle, be gentle and fair to the enemy. According to Ibn Arabshah, among Timur's soldiers there were many pious, generous and pious people. They are accustomed to giving alms to the poor, extending a helping hand in times of trouble, being kind to the captives, and freeing them. Amir Temur always paid special attention to the emirs and soldiers who showed courage in battle.
As a result, Sahibkiran managed to create an army that was the foundation of his state by strengthening discipline among the hundreds of thousands of troops that ruled.
From the time Timur ascended the throne of Movarounnahr, he began to expand the borders of his state as much as possible. For this purpose, it will take over the lands between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers. He marched on Khorezm five times and in 1388 completely subjugated it, ending the Sufi dynasty that ruled here. During his three-year (1386-1388), five-year (1392-1398), and seven-year (1399-1405) marches, Timur conquered the Jalayirs in Azerbaijan, the Sarbadar state in Sabzavar, the Kurdish state in Herat, and Iran and Khorasan. In 1394-1395, the Khan of the Golden Horde marched against Tokhtamysh, defeating a large number of his troops and occupying the territory of the Golden Horde. It also paved the way for Timur's troops to move freely along the Volga River. It should be noted that these victories of Timur played a significant role in the history.
     Amir Temur captured Delhi in his march to India in 1398, victory and Beirut in his march to Syria in 1400, and Damascus in 1401. In 1402, he defeated Yildirim Boyazid, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, in a campaign against him. With this victory, Timur postponed the fall of Europe to the Ottomans for several decades.
      Timur came to Samarkand from Asia Minor in 1404 and was hesitant to march to China. Undoubtedly, Timur had prepared for this march for many years and had collected the necessary information for the battle over the years. In 1404, Timur set out on a voyage to China with an army of 200. However, due to Timur's serious illness, his troops stopped in January 1405 in the border town of Otrar, near China, where on February 1405, 18, the great master Amir Temur died. Before his death, he bequeathed to his sons:
      “My sons! Read, never forget and apply the testaments and rules left to you in order to preserve the great career and happiness of the nation. It is your duty to cure the nation. Look at the weak, do not leave the poor to the oppression of the rich. Let Justice and Freedom be your program, your leader. Only in my will did I show you the form of the office, its firsts. If you stick to them, you will not be stoned. ”

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