Management system in the state of Amir Temur


Management system in the state of Amir Temur
  1. Central authorities and administrative bodies of Amir Temur state.
  2. Military-administrative system of the state.
  3. Implementation of local administration.
  4. Organization of judicial and police authorities.
Central authorities and administrative bodies of Amir Temur state
In the second half of the XNUMXth century and the beginning of the XNUMXth century, Amir Temur founded his great empire. In Movarounnahr, the feudal disunity that had prevailed for a long time was put an end to, and a strong state was established. At the top of this state, which was administered in the form of a single governorship, was a monarch - a single governor - an emir. The power of the head of state - emir is not limited. He made laws, he himself repealed them. All positions in the state were established by the emir. Amir appointed and dismissed all officials. Amir was considered the sole commander of the country's military forces.
The special chapter of "Temur's Constitutions" entitled "The Constitution I Followed to Keep the Kingdom Under My Will" contains the following instructions: cannot interfere..., others must not be partners or superior to the king in the affairs of the kingdom.... The tsar should have the authority to issue orders throughout the country. Let the king make his own judgment in all cases, so that no one can interfere and change the judgment of the king... The king's judgment must be implemented, that is, regardless of what judgment he makes, it must be implemented... No one can interfere with him... In the affairs of Satanat , the king should know that he is the only one in ruling, and should not make anyone his partner in the kingdom.'' Thus, the emir independently resolved all issues of state life and had unlimited power.
Amir Temur paid special attention to the administration of the state based on justice, the rule of law, and conducting politics in the interests of citizens. In every big and small issue related to the life of the country, he consulted with special people, people of religion and science, knowledgeable representatives of every field. In "Tuzuklar", which is the product of his intelligence and wisdom, all the main principles and guidelines of managing a great state were explained in all aspects. D. Logafet, a well-known foreign scientist, writes that "when Europe did not even have a simple understanding of the constitution, its state had a set of constitutional laws - "Tuzuk".
In "Temur Constitutions", the main links of the state structure, their tasks, functions, activities of ministers, various social groups, attitudes to classes, the structure of the army, the state's financial and tax policy, property relations and similar topical issues, solutions are clearly stated. Also, in "Tuzuklar", when solving every issue, when analyzing incidents, events, approach with an impartial eye, do not harm the citizens, do not betray the country, strictly adhere to religion, rule of law, with the criteria of justice and truth. the need to operate has been repeatedly emphasized. These show that Sahibqiran was very patriot and civic-minded, he paid first-class attention to the harmony and harmony between the people of the country and different social groups, and to protecting the interests of the nation by law.
Amir Temur made extensive use of the political management experiences of the past in establishing his state. According to its structural structure, this state was often based on military-political orders. The powerful ruler must have been devoted to the science of history, and had a broad idea of ​​the various states of the ancient and Middle Eastern countries and their political and administrative methods and management systems. However, his system of state administration was built on the basis of a unified centralized political order in the entire territory under his control, and the experiences in this field were enriched by the experience of the administrative methods widely used in the Central Asian states of the Middle Ages. Amir Temuri's use of Nizamulmulk's work "Siyasatnama" as a broad guide in state affairs, and his use of "Siyasatnama" in "Tuzuklari Temur" is a vivid example of this.
Amir Temur followed the eight principles of statehood that existed before him:
— the state should be politically independent;
— non-violation of the political integrity of the state and society;
— that the state and society are managed on the basis of certain laws, procedures, and ideology;
— regulations coordinating the management system have been formed;
— state of social and economic relations in the society should be under the state's attention;
— constant concern about the development of science and culture;
— according to the conditions and procedures of each period, the state conducts the issues of the internal development of the society using the existing factors in the external world;
- the powers at the top of the state understand the past, present and future with deep thinking, strong faith, extremely high spirituality and nationalism.
Amir Temur added the ninth to these foundations of statehood, the development of society and the provision of interests of all social classes.
Timur decided important state affairs in a meeting (council) consisting of representatives of the upper strata of society. Who will participate in the meeting and the order of their placement in relation to the throne is described in detail in the chapter of Timur's rules "Sit and take a seat in the Royal Palace". It says that Sayyids, Qazis, Ulama, Fuzalo, Sheikhs, Nobles and Ashraf (people of honor and faith), people of the highest class are on the right side of the throne, Amir ul-Umara, Beklarbegi, Amirs, Noyans, The commanders and emirs of the ulus, districts and armies, the thousand-bashi, the hundred-bashi, and the ten-bashi had to sit on the left side. Devonbegi and ministers are in front of the throne, kalontars (city chiefs) and kakhudos (village, community elders) of different countries, el-ulus are behind the ministers, bahadirs, boys are behind the throne to the right, guard begis (messengers who go in front of the army) and the chiefs of the division) were supposed to sit behind the throne on the left side. Khirovul (a division from the advanced part of the army) was located opposite the throne of the emir, the interior (a low-ranking palace servant), and the private yasavul were in front of the door of the big tent. officials who take it and deliver it to the king) are standing on the right and left. The rest of the Sipohis and servants stood in line according to their rank. The meeting was festive. The king gave a royal feast to those gathered. However, the assembly was an advisory body. The decisive vote in the meeting belonged to the prince-king himself.
In addition, Temur held councils with a narrow circle of people. This state council was mainly attended by princes and military chiefs (emirs) who discussed issues of war and peace, especially those related to marches to distant countries. The state council was convened in peacetime in the emir's palace in Samarkand. , chief amir, beklarbegi, emirs, chiefs of uluses and districts, thousandbashis, yuzbashis, ministers, devanbegis and others took part.
In the Sultanate, the central administrative bodies are headed by the devanbeg. carried out by a special office. There were ministers performing the following duties in the cabinet: 1) the minister of the country and raiyat - they monitored important economic and construction works in the country, the state of the raiyat, etc.; 2) Sipohi ministers - those who are aware of the salaries of the Sipohi and the state of the army, and manage them; 3) the minister of deposit of state revenues - managed the goods belonging to the destitute, dead and runaways, zakat and duties collected from the property of merchants, livestock of the country, their meadows and pastures, and deposited the income collected from them; 4) the minister in charge of affairs of the kingdom - monitors the income and expenses of all the kingdom's offices, and expenses from the treasury.
In addition, a state council (kholisa) consisting of 3 ministers was formed, which managed the financial affairs and revenues of the border and conquered countries.
The above seven ministers were subordinate to Dewanbeg. Together with these ministers, Devonbegi managed the important financial affairs of the state and supervised the activities of the ministers.
Next to Devonbegi, there was Arkbegi, who organized and conducted various ceremonies in the state.
Thus, the administration consisted of two offices: dargah and ministry (devan). The dargah was presided over by a supreme ruler. The Supreme Council was responsible for managing the activities of the Dargah, its communication with the councils and local authorities.
In the Supreme Court - the executive power, there was the prime minister, the minister of war, the minister of property and tax affairs, and the minister of finance. There were three other ministers who were responsible for the administration of borders and dependent countries and reported to the devanbeg. In the central government system, sheikh-ul-Islam, qazikalon, qaziy ahdos (customary judge), qazi askar, sadri a'zam (administrator of waqf lands and properties), dodkhoh (complaint reviewer), eshikoga, palace minister, yasovul (executor of the personal orders of the ruler), kalakchi (determining the amount of taxes), muhassil (tax collector), tavochi (official responsible for gathering the main troops), guard (supervising the implementation of Sharia rules, market procedures) and others.
In addition, there were chief hajib, hajibs, treasurer, khans, jibachi, qushchi, bakovul, secretaries, engravers, doctors, musicians, pharmacists in the dargah.
Amir Temur's service in history is that he improved the management system of statehood, internal and foreign policy procedures, and legal foundations in the new historical conditions. There were a thousand footmen, a thousand camels, and a thousand horsemen who were aware of external and internal emergency events. Camps were established throughout the kingdom within a day's journey. 50-200 head of horses were caught in each camp.
The owner relied on his relatives to rule the country.
Military-administrative system of the state
The organization and management of the army, which consists of amir navkars, is an important aspect of state life. Amir Temur himself was the commander-in-chief of all armies. He gave the rank of emir (military chief) to 313 of his servants and appointed a deputy ("candidate for emir"-muntazir-ul-amorat) to each of them.
He appointed 313 out of 4 people as beklarbegi and one person as amir ul-umaro. Amir ul-umaro was the direct deputy of the amir, and his ruling was binding on the amirs and sipahis.
In addition to the above, 12 other people have received the rank of Emirate. The first of these was the commander of a thousand-man army, the second of two thousand men, the third of three thousand men, etc., and the twelfth of twelve thousand men. According to the order of the emirate, one was the viceroy of the other. For example, the first emir was appointed as deputy to the second emir, the second emir to the third emir, and so on. The twelfth emir was the deputy of emir ul-Umara. Amir ul-Umara was considered the deputy of Amir Temur.
Out of 313 people, one hundred were ten chiefs, one hundred were centurions, and one hundred were centurions. During the battle, Amir ul-Umara was the head of the emirs, the emirs were the commanders of the thousands, the commanders of the thousands were the commanders of the hundreds, and the commanders of the commanders were the commanders of the commanders.
During the battle, the amirs of the troops were subordinated to the first assistant of the emir - Amir ul-Umar. The troops are divided into seven corps: guard (front), chapovul (attacking army), shiqpvul; (the unit guarding the left wing of the army), chindovol (the rear of the army), gul (center), barongor (the right wing of the army) and jarongor (the left wing of the shin). In addition, there were guards (a messenger unit that went in front of the army).
Warriors and generals loyal to Timur were rewarded. If he showed valor and courage during the battle for the first time, he was appointed as a lieutenant, the second time - a centurion, and the third time - a thousand. If the centurion defeats any of the enemy's military units, he is appointed as the first emir. If the first emir breaks the ranks of the enemy army and disperses it, he is promoted to the second emir. In this way, the emirs who served were promoted above their ranks. If the soldier shows bravery, his salary is increased. In addition, he was given a chumuk, a otoga with precious stones, a sword and a horse as a gift, and he was promoted to the rank of ten chief. If the captain breaks the enemy's forces, he is given the mayorship. As a centurion, he was appointed as the ruler of a country. Mingbashi also received the position of ruler of the country for such services.
Implementation of local administration
Based on Timur's rules, reporters were appointed in every border, region, city and army. They had to deliver information about the behavior of governors, raiyats, soldiers and soldiers, about the goods that entered and left the area, strangers, neighboring countries and others. At the same time, they also provided information about the situation in the army, combat readiness and moral qualities of the troops. In addition, "thousand speedy camels, thousands of horse-riding runners were appointed as runners, and rilings were appointed as runners on foot." They delivered the messages of the borders of different countries, the goals and intentions of the neighboring rulers.
A kutvol (fort chief - commandant) was appointed to each city and village, he was responsible for guarding the raiyat and protecting them from various types of theft. In addition, special road watchers, officers (administrative troop chiefs) are appointed and have the obligation to guard the roads, monitor passers-by, merchants, travelers, and deliver property and other things from address to address. those who are If someone loses something on the way, o'ZThose who are responsible for everyone if they are killed or something else happens.
Temur established the position of arzbegi. He decided the situation of sipoh, raiyat or those who came with applications and complaints, the development of the country, and which of the important things had been completed or not.
The management of the settled peasant masses and the urban population under Temur's rule was carried out by the governors of the regions, the governors of the regions, and the governors of the cities.
Kents (uyezd) and villages were topped by dignitaries. They are appointed by governors of regions and districts.
The heads of the local authorities mainly monitored the collection of taxes and tributes from the population and their timely delivery to the state treasury.
In each region, district, and city, 3 ministers were in charge of finance: 1) the minister responsible for setting and collecting fees and taxes; 2) the minister who distributes funds from taxes among workers; 3) the minister in charge of ownerless properties.
Among the nomadic and semi-nomadic population, the local authority belonged to the governors of districts and uluses. The traditions of clan-tribalism have been preserved among the population here, and it has gradually been suppressed by Sharia norms.
Organization of judicial and police authorities
In the state of Timur, court proceedings were carried out by judges. The courts were of an openly class character. There were separate courts (judges) for the population, for the troops, for the clergy-religious and for the servants.
In general, the judicial power had 3 different forms: 1) administrative courts; 2) sharia judge, i.e. a judge acting on the basis of sharia norms; 3) ahdos judge is a judge acting on the basis of customary law.
Sheikh-ul-Islam judged people of religious rank.
In all courts, mufti (jurist) gave the judges conclusions on civil and criminal cases. The trial process was very simple and straightforward. It has a contentious nature, and the parties themselves have collected incriminating and exculpatory information, documents, and brought witnesses. According to "Temur's Laws", judges were supposed to hold everyone responsible according to their actions and issue "reasonable decisions and verdicts". If the parties were dissatisfied with the verdicts and decisions of the judges, they could appeal only to the amir. Amir's judgment was obligatory.
In Timur's state, mukhtasibs (Arabic supervisors) had a special position. They supervised the implementation of religious ceremonies, traditions and Sharia laws.
The qazikalon (supreme judge) was responsible for the state of justice throughout the empire. He supervised the activities of raiyat judges. In Timur's state, there was a special body, the Justice Department, which conducted court proceedings on crimes against the state administration and abuse of office.
Special attention was paid to the social status of the person in the process of prosecution and punishment. For example: if the heir to the throne of the conquered lands did not obey the central authority, he could not be punished. In this case, he should be kept in prison (prison) until the investigation is completed and the amir should be informed. He was tried by the emir himself.
Timur conquered many countries. He strictly monitored the obedience of the inhabitants of the conquered countries and the behavior of the ruling classes. There were secret agents of Timur. At the same time, chroniclers (persons who record daily events in the country) were appointed to monitor the state of affairs, the mood of the soldiers, their behavior, and their actions. The narrator performed the functions of the secret police. He had to be constantly aware of what was happening among the population, military chiefs and armies in his area, and he had to inform Temur about them every day.
The function of the secret police was carried out by a thousand swift camels, a thousand horsemen, and a thousand horsemen. They knew the goals and intentions of the neighboring rulers and delivered them to the emir.
As written in Timur's regulations, messengers (khabarnavis) were appointed in every border, region, city and army, and they informed the emir about the actions of governors, raiyats, sepoys and foreign troops. They sent detailed information about the goods that came in and went out, the foreigners who came in and went out, the caravans from every country and the news about the ruler, the neighboring kings, their words and deeds, and the ulama and fuzalo from the remote countries. they had to write down.
Along with the secret police, there was also a criminal police. For example, a kutvol (fortress commandant) was appointed to each city and village, who guarded the soldiers and raiyats, and prevented theft and raids. In addition, observers, officers (managers) were appointed on the road, they guarded the roads, followed passers-by, merchants, travelers and protected the integrity of their property and other things. And in every city there are guards (guards, watchmen) who guard the population. Timur issued an order to determine the able-bodied men in each country and assign them jobs.

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