Amir Temur and the culture of the Timurid period


Amir Timur and the culture of the Timurid period
1. Amir Temur and the place of the Timurid period in the history of Central Asian culture. Landscaping works. Architecture. Urban planning. Ulugbek Observatory. Samarkand region.
2. Development of fine art and its types during the Timurid period. Samarkand miniature school and its characteristics. Samarkand Science Center.
3. Development of literature. Chigatai literature - the emergence of Uzbek literature. The role of Islamic ideology in the spiritual and cultural development of the XIV-XV centuries.
4. Medicine, philosophy, history science in Movarounnahr. The art of literature. The art of music. 12 status. This period is called the Timurid Renaissance by modern science.
Amir Temur and the period of the Timurids have a special place in the history of Central Asian culture. Cultural achievements of this period were at the level of universal civilization. The formation of Uzbek culture in this classic period in the history of culture is related to the political, socio-economic development of this period. In particular, architecture, science, literature, art, crafts flourished. Many people of science and art, artisans, architects and artists from Movarounnahr and Middle Eastern countries, India gathered for the improvement and cultural development of the country, as well as the large cities of Samarkand, Shahrisabz, Bukhara, Termiz, Tashkent and Herat. has been With their efforts, a group of architectural monuments in Shahizinda, Bibikhanim mosque, Dor us-siyadat (Kesh), and Ahmed Yassavi mausoleum in Turkestan were built. It is worth noting that Amir Temur and Timurids Shahrukh, Ulug'bek, Boysung'ur Mirza, Abu Said Mirza and others paid great attention to the development of culture, literature, painting, and architecture and patronized them.
During the Sahibqiran period, a lot of improvement works were carried out in the kingdom. It is permissible to point out the architectural complexes built in Samarkand, Shahrisabz and other places, villages around Samarkand named after the big cities of the world, such as Damascus, Egypt, Baghdad, Sultania, Farish, Shiraz.
The development of landscaping and irrigated agriculture had a positive effect on the development of important spheres of economic life - crafts, trade and commodity-money relations. During the period of Amir Temur and Mirzo Ulugbek, mining works were started, and due to the extraction of various minerals, handicrafts developed at a high level. Due to the great attention to handicrafts, special carpet-makers, chest-makers, glass-makers, saddle-makers, jewelers' quarters have increased in the cities, new market stalls, tim and stalls have been built. Textiles, pottery, blacksmithing, blacksmithing and construction, architecture took the main place. In the cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Tashkent, Shahrukhiya, Termiz, Shahrisabz, Karshi, new craft districts were created, and these cities became centers of trade and culture. Gazmols are woven from thread, wool, hemp fiber. Silk gazmals - atlas, kimkhob, banoras, dukhoba, horo, debo - were woven from silk, and they were bought by local and foreign merchants.
In the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, many metal products, household items, equipment, and weapons were produced. Samarkand has become the center of arms production, and a special military district has been established in the city. Copper and brass objects and coins were minted in the cities. The candlestick made by the craftsman Izziddin bin Tajiddin Isfakhani for the mausoleum of Ahmed Yassavi by the decree of Amir Temur, and the huge copper cauldron cast by Abdulaziz bin Sharafuddin Tabrizi have been preserved until now. Coppersmiths and blacksmiths performed complex work such as metal casting, casting, patterning, gold and silver plating.
The doors of the Bibikhanim mosque in Samarkand are made of seven different metal alloys (haftjosh). Jewelers made exquisite jewelry from gold, silver and brass alloys. Patterns and inscriptions were made on the surface of vessels with gold and silver flanges, studded with precious stones.
Pottery was a thriving industry. In the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, mysterious ceramic products were distinguished by their highly artistic, colorful form and quality. In stonework, patterns and evenness are widely used. Bricklayers in construction were called "panno", plasterers who covered rivets and lamps on gables, rafters and roofs were called "masters".
In Samarkand, glassmaking developed and various dishes and items were made. Colored glass was used in the construction. Decorative doors, fences, columns, gates were built in wood carving, and various items and equipment were made. Samarkand paper was popular even in foreign countries. Historian Ibn Arabshah compared Shamsuddin Munshi's skill in writing letters to the sharpness of Amir Timur's spear blade.
During this period, the head of the enterprise producing handicraft goods was called "master", assistant and apprentice were called "halfa". Craftsmen were considered to belong to the cultured class of the city.
The Timurid state had regular trade relations with China, Tibet, India, Iran, Russia, along the Volga, and Siberia. Embassy relations of the Timurids became important in expanding trade relations with foreign countries. Amir Temur built trade stalls, markets and roads in large cities, increased caravansary on trade routes. Especially in Samarkand and Bukhara, trade and craft facilities such as bazaar, charsu, tim, toq, cappon were built. There are shops (rasta) on both sides of the wide street that runs through the central part of Samarkand. Samarkand and Bukhara were distinguished by the width of their commercial areas and the possession of specialized markets. In addition to being a trading center, the bazaar was also a place for craft production. Also, manuscript books and writing paper were sold in the bazaars, and mirzas who wrote applications or letters sat there. The trading post is named after the goods sold in it (such as Toqi zargaron, Toqi telpakfurushon). Conversations about literature, poetry, science were organized in the bazaars, edicts were announced and the guilty were punished. Various shows are shown in this place, mosque, madrasa, bathhouse are built near the market.
During the Timurid period, places for resting and changing horses - yoms, rabots, cisterns - were built on the caravan routes for ambassadors, runners and trade caravans.
At the end of the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, Movarounnahr was connected with many countries by caravan routes, which had socio-economic, sometimes political and military importance. These roads made it possible to develop the interaction of countries that differ from each other in terms of people's lifestyle, religious, economic, spiritual and material culture. In addition to the practical task of trade and diplomatic relations, the caravan routes also served to strengthen the economic and cultural relations between countries and peoples. It is safe to say that during this period the Great Silk Road was restored and served for the cultural development of the regions.
During the Timurid era, the fields of architecture, science, literature, and art reached the stage of maturity in Central Asia. The power of the Timurid state was especially manifested in architecture. "If you don't believe in our strength and power, look at our buildings!" the inscription also meant the political goal of Amir Temur's reign. Because the magnificence of the structures being built was one of the political tasks. During this period, defensive walls, arrangement of main streets, construction of architectural complexes intensified in the construction of Movarounnahr cities. It is possible to observe the construction of "hisor" in Samarkand and Shahrisabz, which is somewhat different from "shahristan", which is the main part of the city in the early middle ages. The construction of the city of Kesh (Shahrisabz) was completed during the reign of Amir Temur. In the south and west of Hisar, the government palace - Oksaroy, and around it, rabots were built, gardens were established.
Amir Temur paid special attention to the decoration of Samarkand, the capital of the Sultanate. By his decree, a fortress, a fortress, magnificent buildings and goldsmith's palaces were built. The Tomb of the Shepherd Father on the Kohak hill at the entrance to Samarkand was built during the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek. During the period of Amur Temur, Samarkand began to be built in the south of Afrosiyab, in the place of the inner and outer city of the Mongol period, and this area was surrounded by a fortress wall and a moat (1371) and was called hisar. Hisar is 500 hectares and is surrounded by a wall. The city was entered through six gates.
The city consists of neighborhoods, some of which are united to guzars. The formation of architectural complexes in the city was the greatest achievement of the Timurid period. Architecture has reached a new stage of development. This process imposed new tasks on engineers, architects and painters. During the period of Amir Temur, the distance between the edges in the structure of the domes was widened. In the construction of two-story domes, the height of the plinth, which supports the outer dome, which rests on arched ribs from the inside, increased. During the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek, new types of dome structures were developed. Achievements in concrete sciences were also evident in architectural monuments (Shahizinda, Ahmed Yassavi, Gori Amir mausoleums, Bibikhanim mosque, Ulugbek madrasah). There was a precise interproportion of geometrical structures that determined the general harmony of architectural forms in the planning of their facade and interior. Decoration and polishing works were also carried out during the construction of the building.
Before and after the Timurid era, the decoration and patterns were not so advanced in the architecture of Movarunnahr and Khurasan. In the architecture of the period of Amir Temur and Mirzo Ulugbek, there is a lot of color and a variety of patterns in the decoration. Masters who mastered the art of calligraphy wrote epigraphic inscriptions in six different scripts in special places of the building.
Figurative subjects are rare in tile coverings. There is a double image of a lion and the sun on the pediments, which has a symbolic meaning. The decoration of the interior of the building in this period was also diverse. The wall and ceiling, even the dome, are decorated with patterns. In the buildings built during the time of Amir Temur, blue and golden colors predominated, and luxurious patterns were made. In the period of Mirzo Ulugbek, blue patterns on a white background, similar to Chinese porcelain, are often found.
Many mosques and mausoleums were built during this period. Amir Temur built a congregational mosque in Samarkand after the Indian campaign (1399). Bibikhanim's madrasah and mausoleum were built in front of it. Mirza Ulugbek expanded and started reconstruction of Bukhara mosque (Masjidi Kalon). However, it got its final form later in the XNUMXth century.
Saraymulkhonim (Bibikhanim) madrasa and Gori Amir complex madrasa were built during the reign of Amir Temur. Mirzo Ulugbek built madrasas in Samarkand, Bukhara and Gijduvan. In the madrasa in Bukhara, a hadith was written that says "The pursuit of knowledge is a duty for every Muslim and Muslim woman."
In the XNUMXth century, the architecture of the madrasah acquired its intricately formed image. Although the construction of the madrasa was planned according to a single system, each had its own appearance according to the main forms, their mutual proportions and decorations. The two artistic masterpieces of the Timurids, Ulughbek in Samarkand and Gavharshodbegim madrasas in Herat, differ from each other despite the fact that they were built according to a single system plan.
The mausoleum created during the Timurid period, the fence-hazira containing the graves of religious figures and priests, the shrines of saints, and dahms form a separate group. In Samarkand, during the reign of Amir Temur, the mausoleum of Sheikh Burkhaniddin Sogharji - the Ruhabad mausoleum and the mausoleum of the Timurids - the Gori Amir mausoleum, as well as a group of mausoleums with facades were built in the Shahizinda complex.
During the period of Mirzo Ulug'bek, the result of creative research also affects the architectural appearance of the dahms. An octagonal mausoleum was built in the Shahizinda complex and a mausoleum, which is still believed to be Rumi's mausoleum in Qaziza (it was built for the Sultan's mother, whose identity is unknown). Mirzo Ulugbek also built unique buildings in Bukhara, Gijduvan, Shahrisabz, Termiz, and Tashkent. But the monuments in Samarkand dominated in terms of construction scale and decorations. In Tashkent, there is the Zangi father's mausoleum and the Shayhontohur complex, which includes the Kaldirgochbi mausoleum, which dates back to the first half of the XNUMXth century.
During the reign of Amir Temur, a huge building in terms of structure and scale was built in the city of Turkestan, the Akhmad Yassavi Mausoleum. This mausoleum is the most unique among the architectural monuments of the Muslim East.
The architecture of steps also has its own structure. Amir Temur builds the monument of Chashmai Ayyub in Bukhara (1380). Also, in Sahibqiron Shahrisabz, the shrine "Dar ul-Siyodat" ("House of the Sayyids") (1379-80), where his son Jahangir died After that, he built Jahangir Mirza mausoleum (Hazrat Imam's mausoleum) in Shahrisabz. It can be seen the traditions of Khorezm architecture. After Amir Temur annexed Khorezm to Movarounnahr territory, he moved the architects and craftsmen there first to Shahrisabz and then to Samarkand.
The Ulugbek observatory in Samarkand is a unique monument of architectural art. The observatory is circular with a diameter of 48 meters and has three floors. Jamshid Koshi, Qazizada Rumi, Ali Kushchi and other scientists developed the science of astronomy in the observatory.
There were two types of palaces built during the Timurid period. The first one performed an administrative-political function and was built inside a fortress or fortress. The second was residences outside the city, where receptions, meetings and entertainment were held. The diameter of the Oksaroy dome in Shahrisabz is 22 meters, and its arches and arches are incomparably large. The main residence of Amir Temur and Mirza Ulughbek was in Koksaroy and Bostansaroy in Samarkand. Also, outside the city, Amir Temur built twelve gardens, each of them was distinguished by its name, size, function, and landscaping. Receptions and weddings organized in these gardens were recorded by RG Klaviho and Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi.
During the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek, the Registan Square of Samarkand was formed, the Muqatta Mosque, the 210-domed Alika Kokaldosh mosque was built. Some mausoleums in Shahizinda, Chilustun and Chinnikhana palaces, Kokgumbaz mosque in Shahrisabz were built during his time.
In the second half of the XNUMXth century, the Khoja Ahror madrasa, Ishratkhana, and Oksaroy mausoleums were built in Samarkand.
During the period of the Timurids, visual arts rose in various directions. Ancient mural paintings and traditions of fine art in general in Central Asia were revived in a new form and content during the reign of Amir Temur. Miniature art was also considered primarily as a pattern. In the palaces and residences of the Timurids in Samarkand, there were murals depicting reception ceremonies, battle scenes, hunting scenes, and public holidays. They depict Amir Temur, his sons, grandsons, wives and concubines. Murals on the wall of the Ulugbek observatory are also thematically diverse and stylistically close to the miniature genre. In an image based on Abdurrahman al-Sufi's work on the catastrophe, the constellation Andromeda is depicted in the form of a woman. In the observatory, nine celestial views, seven rings, seven bright star levels, time divisions, and seven climates of the Earth are described.
In the constructions of Shirinbeka Aga, Bibikhanim, and Tuman Aga built during the reign of Amir Temur, there are paintings and paintings as well. The Shirinbeka Agha mausoleum has many colorful images, while the walls of the other two buildings depict Islamic motifs in white and blue.
The art of calligraphy developed, in the XNUMXth century, along with the traditional Kufic, Nash, and Devanian letters, suls and quick-hand writing styles were developed. A special workshop for copying unique manuscripts had a positive effect on the development of book publishing.
A miniature school was established in Samarkand during the reign of Amir Temur. The leading artist of this period is Khoja Abdulhay Naqqosh. The rough miniature copies that are now kept in the libraries of Turkey and Berlin belong to the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, and they are distinguished by individual figures, trees, gylap, small compositions, harmony of lines in patterns, precision of movements, placement on the basis of figures. .
Portraits of historical figures are also depicted in miniatures. Miniatures depicting the life of Amir Temur have not yet been found. Pictures close to the original condition can be found in the first copied copies of "Zafarnoma". A slightly brighter image of him is presented in "1467afarnama" copied in Herat (3). Initially started by Mirak Naqqosh and completed by Kamoliddin Behzod, these miniatures are distinguished by the complexity of their design and the combination of bright colors.
The development of oriental miniatures was connected with the development of fiction. Artists often painted the works of Firdavsi, Nizami, Khusrav Dehlavi, then Jami and Navoi. In the XNUMXth century, Rashididdin Fazlullah Hamadani's historical work "Jome' ut-Tawarikh" was also made with miniatures. This tradition was continued during the Timurid period, and battle scenes are depicted in works such as Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi's "Zafarnama" and Khatifi's "Temurnama". In some cases, religious works also depict holy places like Mecca and Medina. In some of the works of art, there are pictures of Prophet Muhammad (with his blessed face covered with a mask) standing among people and going to the Miraj.
Most of the miniatures of the XNUMXth century depict battle scenes related to the heroes of Eastern poetry, Layli and Majnun, Khusrav and Shirin, Rustam, Iskandar, Bahram. In general, miniature art was a unique artistic-aesthetic phenomenon of a certain period in the area of ​​the Muslim East, including Iraq, Iran, Khorasan, Movarunnahr and India. This art is related to the patronage of the Timurids, and advanced miniature schools were established in central cities such as Isfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz, Herat, Samarkand, and Delhi.
The Samarkand school of miniatures was formed in the first half of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, and in these miniatures created in different series, the influence of Chinese painting can be felt in the Turkic symbols characteristic of the art of Eastern Turkestan.
Palace painters in Samarkand, Khwaja Abdulhai Naqqosh and his students Sheikh Mahmud Talili, Pir Ahmad Boghi Shamali, Muhammad bin Mahmudshah al-Hayyam, Darvesh Mansour, used delicate colors in the paintings. These miniatures were created on the topic of hunting typical of the Timurid period. After 1420, when Boysungur Mirza established a library, calligraphy and painting workshop in Herat, some of these artists (for example, Mahmudshah al-Hayyam) moved to Herat. Khoja Abdulhay's miniatures for historical works ("Zafarnoma") depict only the faces of Amir Temur and the Timurids, while in his paintings for some artistic works, they are depicted in different situations. Some of the miniatures created during the reign of Halil Sultan are important historical documents, and artistically, they are distinguished by their unique "ink pen" style. During the lifetime of Amir Temur, kings and princes were depicted on the walls of his palace. The real portrait genre was formed by Kamoliddin Behzod.
Many miniatures depicting the images of Amir Temur and the Timurids are kept in various libraries around the world. Most of them do not indicate the period of painting or the artist, place, school. However, in these miniatures, the symbol of Amir Temur, founded by Amir Temur, with the head of a sun-like lion radiating light, can be found on the facade of his palace, on coins minted by Halil Sultan and Ulugbek. Also, due to the abundance of dark green and brown in the depiction of nature, and the fact that the clothes are characteristic of the Turkic nation, these miniatures can be said to belong to the Samarkand school of miniatures. Because the clothes of heroes of Herat and Shiraz miniatures are different. The representatives of the miniaturists of the Samarkand school were more skilled in creating compositions and depicting landscapes.
The miniatures of Sultan Ali Bovardi from Obivard, a famous calligrapher and painter during the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek, are unique in their sharpness of lines and brightness of colors. 18 miniatures typical of the Samarkand school were created for Nizami's "Khamsa" and 49 miniatures for the "Shahnoma" work, which are now stored in the Toppkapu Palace Library in Turkey. In the miniatures of Abdurrahman al-Sufi's work "The List of Moving Stars", the maps are marked with red and black circles, the positions of large and small stars, and are graphically drawn in black ink without color. The constellation is depicted as a representative of ordinary people. The theme of ordinary people's life in Eastern miniature art appeared in the period of the Temurs. For example, the miniatures on the topic "Building the Samarkand Mosque", "Building the Wall of Alexander", "Life of Nomads", "Jamshid teaching crafts to ordinary people" are examples of this.
During the period of Timurids, the rise of culture was also manifested in various forms of arts and crafts. Some of them were connected with architecture, some with tiling, wood and stone carving. Words are inscribed on the gravestones with examples of calligraphy in Islamic plant-like, mainly geometrical patterns. These inscriptions are written in deep, cast grooves. The gravestones are in the form of saghana or supa, made of local raw material - gray marble, and in some cases, very rare stones. The doors of the Gori Amir, Shahizinda, Yassavi mausoleums, as well as the house pillars of the XNUMXth century are carved with wood carvings. During this period, metal engraving (engraving) develops. Items and dishes are made of gilded bronze, brass, red copper. Patterns are made by engraving and embossing, precious stones are attached. The huge candlesticks in Yassavi's mausoleum, especially the two-ton cauldron, are the highest examples of bronze casting.
It was a novelty for applied art ceramics to paint simple plant-like patterns on green, bluish bright glaze with black paints, or to work with clustered flowers. . Patterns on ceramics are drawn with a brush. In previous centuries, the potter-artist used colors from pale havarang to louvre in different styles in porcelain-like ceramics belonging to the Timurid era. From the types of applied arts of this period, weaving, carpet making, and embroidery rose to the level of high art.
The rapid development of science and culture in the whole Muslim world is inextricably linked with the name and activity of Amir Temur. Thanks to Amir Temur's concern for the development of science, Samarkand became one of the scientific and educational centers of the world. Thanks to the efforts of the master, famous scientists gathered in Samarkand. For example, Sayyid Sharif Jurjani, Mas'ud Taftazani, Jamshid Koshi, Ali Kushchi, Qazizada Rumi, doctor Khusomiddin Kermoni, astronomer Mavlano Ahmed, as well as more than 200 local and foreign scientists performed scientific and creative activities during Ulugbek's time. . During the time of the Timurids, great scientists in the field of natural and humanitarian sciences grew up and they made a worthy contribution to the development of world science. Mirzo Ulug'bek, Qazizoda Rumi, Ghiyaziddin Jamshid and Ali Kushchilar made discoveries in astronomy. Hafizi Abro', Sharafiddin Ali Yazdi, Abdurazzaq Samarkandi, Mirkhand, Khondamir, Zayniddin Vasifi and others created valuable works in the field of history. Artists such as Davlatshah Samarkandi, Jami, Alisher Navoi, Atoullo Hosseini, Husain Voiz Koshifi, became famous for their high works of art in artistic creation and linguistics.
During the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek, a unique scientific academy was formed in Samarkand. Measurements of the globe and compilation of astronomical tables were carried out. The construction of the Samarkand observatory was a huge cultural event, in terms of its equipment and scientific achievements, it had no equal in the world at that time. Mirzo Ulug'bek had deep knowledge in mathematics, geometry, astronomy. Ali Kushchi, Mohammad Khavafiyy, who worked at the observatory, were his favorite students.
Mirzo Ulug'bek in his work "Zizhi jadidi Koragoniy" continues the tradition of the science of catastrophes that began in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries and raises it to a higher level. He wrote works such as "Treatise on the determination of one degree sine" on mathematics, "Riselai Ulug'bek" on astronomy, and "Treatise on the science of music" on music. Apart from these, Ulug'bek also wrote a historical work called "Tarihi arba'a ulus" ("The History of Four Nations").
During this period, examples of folk art were created. Fiction has changed in terms of form and content, scientific works on literary studies and linguistics have been created. Classical "chigatai" literature - Uzbek literature - appeared in the Turkish language. Qutb Khorezmi, Saifi Saraoi, Haydar Khorezmi, Durbek, Hafiz Khorezmi, Atoi, Sakkoki, Lutfiy, Babur, Muhammad Salih (the author of "Shaybaniynoma"), Kamoliddin Binai and others lived and created during the Timurid period. Especially Alisher Navoi's work brought Uzbek literature to the stage of perfection.
The status of Uzbek language, literature and culture increased in Movarounnahr and Khorasan. The Turkic-speaking peoples of Khorasan and their intellectuals began to have close relations with scientists, poets and artists from Samarkand, Bukhara, Turkestan and other cities. Any artist lived and created in any country or city that was convenient for him. For example, poets from Khorezm, Haydar Khorezmi, went to Shiraz, poet Sheikh Atoi Turbat, a descendant of Ismail Ota, went to Balkh (near Tashkent), and Maulana Lutfi, who was originally from Tashkent, went to live near Herat.
Timurid rulers and princes were people close to literature, art, and science. 22 of them are poets, who wrote poems themselves and patronized artists. Halil Sultan, Husayn Boykara also established the devan.
There were many poets who wrote in Persian and Turkish in Khorasan and Movarounnahr, and the literary life flourished. The attention to the translations of Eastern classical literature will also increase. The types of artistic creativity such as ghazal, rubai, tuyuq have developed. Kings, ordinary artisans and craftsmen, scientists and scholars participated in the literary process.
In the development of literary life in Khurasan, the place of Boysung'ur Mirza (son of Shahrukh) was incomparable, and with his initiative, he made a great contribution to all fields of science and the development of art. Under his guidance, a reliable scientific text of the work was created based on the comparison of many manuscripts of Firdawsi's "Shahnoma". Boysungur himself wrote poems in Persian and Turkish. He perfectly mastered the art of drawing and painting. The decorations and books of the Gavharshadbegim mosque in Herat were made by Boysungur Mirza himself. Forty calligraphers and seventy artists created in his library. According to Alisher Navoi, no one patronized the musicians and painters of Baysung'ur Mirzocha, not even the people.
During the reign of Mirzo Ulughbek, many Persian and Turkish-speaking artists gathered in Movarounnahr. The literary environment was directly controlled by Ulugbek himself, and the best poets of that time gathered in Samarkand. Maulana Kamal Badakhshi was appointed as the captain of the poets ("Malik ul-kalam"). In one of his odes, Sakkoki noted that Mirzo Ulugbek wrote poetry and that he had a high understanding of poetry. Mirzo Ulug'bek considered the poems of Mavlano Lutfii equal to the works of the famous poet of the XNUMXth century, Salman Sovaji. It is fair to say that the representative of Uzbek classical literature, Maulana Lutfi, is actually superior to Salman in Sufi poetry. Because Salman mostly wrote odes.
One of the most prestigious Uzbek poets of the Ulugbek court, Sakkoki's lyrical poems, as well as his odes, became a significant achievement of this poetic genre. Alisher Navoi gives more information about Khurasan poets in the book "Majolis un - nafois", Davlatshah Samarkandi gives information about the artists of the past in "Tazkirat ush-shuaro". Recently (1993), the work "Funun ul-Balogha" (1437) written in Uzbek by Sheikh Ahmad ibn Khudaidad Tarazi opened new opportunities for studying the literary life of Movarunnahr during the Timurid period. In addition to the famous poets known to us, Sheikh Tarazi includes the works of the unknown Muhammad Temur Buga, examples of Shams Kisari's "al-matlubul-ba'd" poetic art, He gives examples of verses of the poet Jalali with a romantic content, from his ghazal about the art of "mutasalsal".
The second half of the 1469th century was the most developed period of Uzbek literature, and this height is associated with the names of Timurid Sultan Husayn Boygaro and Alisher Navoi, the bright sun of Uzbek literature. During the period when Husayn Boygaro was the ruler of Khurasan (1506–XNUMX), great importance was attached to the development of many fields of literature, art and science. During his reign, Sultan Husain, who wrote poems under the pseudonym "Husayni", gave Alisher Navoi the titles of "Amiri Kabir", "Muqarrabi Hazrat Sultani", ("The closest person of His Majesty the Sultan") and sponsored the development of culture together with him. Alisher Navoi led the development of spirituality in cooperation with his teacher Abdurahman Jami. In their image, fiction achieved great achievements. Alisher Navoi's "Hamsa" and "Khazayinul-Maoni" book, Jami's "Haft Avrang" and poetry collections were the greatest examples of the literature of this period. It is not for nothing that Sultan Husayn Boygaro was immensely proud of the creation of such works during his reign in his "Risola".
This rich literary heritage had a profound effect on the further development of Uzbek literature. Babur's work "Boburnoma" was created based on the life-giving traditions of Uzbek literature and science of that time.
The literature of the Timurid period constitutes a special stage in the development of Uzbek literature. The ideas of humanity and nationalism, justice and enlightenment in it have not lost their freshness. This literary heritage, with its rich content, ideological-ideological depth and divinity, will continue to be of great importance in the education of a perfect human being in Uzbekistan for centuries.
In the second half of the XNUMXth century and in the XNUMXth century, the cultural height of Movarounnahr and Khorasan surprised not only the entire Muslim East, but also European countries. This height not only determined the recent cultural and spiritual development of Central Asia, but also had a great impact on the cultural development of neighboring countries.
Determining the general factors of cultural growth in this period shows that they are interconnected and were able to create cultural and spiritual growth in a short time only as a whole.
The first of these is the political and social factor. A huge territory was united into a single kingdom, which ensured social progress.
The second - economic factor - the introduction of a unified administrative system in Movarounnahr and Khorasan led to economic stability and rapid development of production. The state's attention to the development of agriculture, handicrafts, and trade and the implementation of a number of activities in this area have become extremely important for the spiritual and cultural development of the country.
The third - spiritual factor - was the extensive use of previous cultural heritage, spiritual values, wealth, development based on them. From the spiritual and cultural wealth created in Central Asia in the previous centuries, especially in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, from the heritage of the great muhaddiths and scholars Imam Bukhari, Abu Isa Termizi, Muhammad Khorazmi, Ahmad Farghani, Farabi, Ibn Sina, Beruni; The heritage of scholars such as Firdawsi, Nizami Ganjavi, Rumi, Tusi, Attar, written in Arabic, Persian and Turkish languages, as well as the ancient Greek scientific and spiritual wealth, which gained great importance in the spiritual heritage of the Muslim East, were widely used. During this period, cultural relations developed rapidly between other countries under the influence of Amir Temur's kingdom, and such relations opened a wide way for the mutual exchange of spiritual wealth. In particular, the exchange of cultural resources gained importance in relations with countries such as Iran, Arab countries, India, and China.
The fourth - the ideological factor - although this factor is an integral continuation of the spiritual factor, it should be singled out because of its importance and the fact that it played a large role in the spiritual life of its time. is appropriate. In Central Asia, Naqshbandi doctrine, formed on the basis of the development of the teachings of Yusuf Hamadoni, Abdulkhaliq Ghijduvani, Ahmed Yassavi, and its major representatives played an extremely important role in the political, social and cultural life of the XIV-XV centuries, spiritual changes "to some extent served as an ideological basis, a factor for freedom. Because Bahauddin Naqshband's motto "Dil-ba yor — u, dast-ba kor" "Let the heart be in God, the hand be busy with work" became a way of life of the general public along with the leading mystics.
Khoja Ahror Vali, a great representative of the Naqshbandi doctrine, who lived and created in the XNUMXth century, played an important positive role not only in cultural life, but also in socio-political and economic life.
These factors led to the rapid and high level of culture and spirituality of the Timurid era, whose achievements became the basis for further cultural development for many centuries.
The spiritual and cultural development of the XIV-XV centuries was inextricably linked with the strengthening of the Islamic ideology. Islamic sciences were widely taught in madrasahs and mosques, and laws, customs, and traditions were conducted on the basis of Sharia. The activities of saints, sheikhs, sayds, and ulama were specifically noted in the "Tuzuklari Temur".
Amir Temur treated mystic poets and scientists with great respect. Amir Temur had three brothers: Shamsiddin Kulol, Syed Baraka and Zainiddin Abubakr Toyabadi.
Major representatives of Sufism, such as Muhammad Porso, Yaqub Charkhi, Khoja Ahror, created a number of treatises on the Naqshbandi order, and actively served the spiritual purification and development of the society, communicating with state leaders and influencing them. spent. In this regard, the activity of Khoja Ahror is especially important.
In this period, medical science also had its great representatives. Burkhaniddin Nafis ibn Evaz ibn Hakim al-Kirmani, Sultan Ali Khurasani, Husayn Jarrah are among the great representatives of medicine who came to Samarkand.
In the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, great scientists appeared in Central Asia who were engaged in the sciences of logic and philosophy. The development of these sciences is mainly associated with the names of two great thinkers - Sa'diddin bin Umar Taftazani and Mir Syed Jurjani. In addition to these, Abdujabbar Khorazmi, Shamsiddin Munshi, Abdulla Lison, Badriddin Ahmad, Nomoniddin Khorazmi, Khoja Afzal, Jalal Hoki and other scholars lived and worked in Samarkand at that time. Advanced social and moral thoughts of his time began to be described in detail in fiction, Sufism poetry, verse and prose, ghazals and rubai. The artistic works of Sakkoki, Jami, Lutfi, Navoi, Binai, Amir Qacim Anvar and others have a rich philosophical and moral content.
During this period, special treatises devoted to moral and educational problems appeared, among which the legacy of Husain Vaiz Koshifi and Jalaliddin Davani occupies a special place.
During this period, great attention was paid to the study and illumination of the history of the liberation of Movarounnahr and Khurasan from Mongol oppression. The works of historians such as Nizamiddin Shami, Ghiyosiddin Ali Yazdi, Sharafiddin Ali Yazdi, Abdurazzoq Samarkandi, Hafizi Abru, Fasih Ahmad Khavafi, Muiniddin Natanzi, Mirkhand, Khondamir serve as an important source for studying the cultural development of that time. is doing.
The development of science and literature had a positive effect on the development of arts such as the art of reading, copying new manuscripts, calligraphy, painting, and cover-making. Elegant book and calligraphy rose to a new stage of development in the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries. The calligrapher Mir Ali Tabrizi discovered the nasta'liq letter. This method was raised to a high level by Sultan Ali Mashhadi in Herat, and painters such as Abdurahman Khorazmi, Sultan Ali Khandon, Mir Ali Qilqalam, Halvai, Rafiqi, Mirak Naqqosh, Kamoliddin Behzad, Qasim Ali, Mahmud Muzahib, etc. Timurid palace libraries were established in Samarkand and Herat, Isfahan and Shiraz. Manuscripts were collected and stored there.
The 12th-XNUMXth centuries were a new stage in the development of the musical art of the peoples of Central Asia. New tunes and songs, instruments and works on music theory were created. Skilled musicians, composers and hafiz arrived. Abduqadir Nayi, Qulmuhammad Shaikhi, Husayn Udi, Shahquli Gijjaki, Ahmad Qonuni, Haja Yusuf Andijani, Ustad Shadi, Najmuddin Kavkabi are among them. Mirzo Ulug'bek, Jami, Navoi and Binai wrote works related to the science of music and created new tunes. The XNUMX statuses formed in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries were improved during this period. Clowns, puppeteers, gatekeepers demonstrated their art in public theatrical performances.
Thus, culture developed and matured in Central Asia during the Timurid period. The foundation stone of the cultural development in Movarounnahr and Khorasan in the XIV-XV centuries was laid by the great master Amir Temur.
Modern science recognizes the era of Amir Temur and the Timurids as a real Renaissance. Because in this period, the best is based on the creative assimilation of the experiences of the past and new approaches, introducing serious innovations in solving the problems faced by scientists, architects and craftsmen, miniature artists, poets, musicians, and representatives of the performing arts of the new era. traditions were restored.
1. Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. -Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2011.
2. Karimov IA Uzbekistan towards a great future. -Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 1999.
3. Karimov IA The dream of a perfect generation. Tashkent.: East. 1999
4. Karimov IA During the empire, we were considered second-class people. (Answers of President Islam Karimov to the questions of "Nezavisimaya gazeta" reporter). -Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2005.
5. Karimov IA The ideology of national independence is the faith of the people and faith in a great future. -Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2000. Volume 11.
6. Karimov IA The path we have chosen is the path of democratic development and cooperation with the enlightened world. Volume 11. -Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2003.
7. Karimov IA The Uzbek people will never be dependent on anyone. -Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2005.
8. Karimov IA High spirituality is an invincible power - Tashkent.: "Spirituality" 2008.
9. Karimov IA The most important criterion is to reflect the reality of life. Tashkent.: Uzbekistan, 2009.
10. Karimov IA Our main task is to further improve the development of our country and the well-being of our people. Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2010.
11. Karimov. IA Concept of further deepening of democratic reforms and development of civil society in our country. Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2010.
12. Karimov. IA Uzbekistan is on the verge of independence. Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 2011.
Textbooks and Study Guides:
1. Akramov Sh. and others. Cultural monuments of Uzbekistan. -Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 1993.
2. Problems of culture and spirituality.-Tashkent.: "Heritage", 1994.
3. Khairullayev M. From the history of social philosophical thoughts in Uzbekistan.-Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 1995.
4. Mavrulov A. Changes in culture and thinking. Tashkent.: 2004.
5. Abdullayev M. Fundamentals of cultural studies. "Fergana", Tashkent.: 1998.
6. Akhmedova E, Gubaidullin R.. Cultureology. Mirovaya culture. Tashkent.: -2001 g. "Academy" to Uzbekistan.
7. Abdullayev M., Umarov E., Ochildiyev A., Fundamentals of cultural studies. "Turon-Iqbal", Tashkent.: -2006.
8. Ochildiyev A. Philosophy of culture. "Muharrir" publishing house. Tashkent.: -2010y.
9. Bekmurodov M, Yusupova N. Sociology of culture. "Generation of the new century". Tashkent.:
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10. Abdurakhmanov M., Rakhmanov N. Cultural studies. "University", Tashkent.: -2011y.
Additional literature:
1. Komilov N. Sufism or perfect human morality. - T.: "Yozhvchi", 1996.
2. Tulenov J. Philosophy of values. - Tashkent.: "Uzbekistan", 1998.
3. Boboyev H. and others. Fundamentals of cultural studies. -Tashkent.: 2001.
4. Rahmonov N. The light of the soul. - Tashkent.: 2002.
5. Qur'anboyev Q., Abdurahmanov M. Instructional manual for teaching the work of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov "High Spirituality - Invincible Power". - Tashkent: "Universitet", 2010.
6. Rahmonov N., B. Matboboev. Old Turkic-runic writings of Uzbekistan. - Tashkent.: 2006.
Internet Information:
1. "Khalk sozi" newspaper - www info XS. Uz.
2. "Turkistan" newspaper - www Turkistan sarkor. en.
3. "Marifat" magazine - www marifat - inform.
4. "Society and Management" magazine — www rzult academy freenet uz.
5. "Moziy dan sado" magazine - www moziy dostlink. Net
9. www. Ziya

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