The owner is Amir Temur Kuragon


The owner is Amir Temur Kuragon
Amir Temur was born on April 1336, 8 (Sha'ban 736, 25) in Khoja Ilgor village of Kesh (Shahrisabz) region. His father, Amir Muhammad Taragai, was one of the begs belonging to the Barlos tribe. According to the information provided by the author of the work "Mujmali Fasihiy", the lineage of Amir Tara'ay goes back to Genghis Khan. The author of this work, Fasih al-Khawafi, describes the genealogy of Amir Taragai as follows: Amir Taragai ibn Barkal ibn Ilaniz Ijik ibn Karachar noyan ibn Suku Sijan ibn Irumchi ibn Kachuli noyan ibn Tuminakhan ibn Baisungur ibn Kaidukhan ibn Dutam Mine is Buqay ibn Buzanjir ibn Alon Quwa. According to "Jangnomayi Amir Kuragon", his mother was Takina Moh Beg, the daughter of Sadr ul-Shar'ia (commentator of Sharia laws), the greatest of Bukhara fuzalas.
Amir Muhammad Taragai was first of all a perfect Muslim and a great warrior. He was also a devotee of ulama and fuzalo, a patron of scholars and an enthusiastic person. Amir Taragai was one of the property owners of the Bahadir era and had close relations with the rulers belonging to the Chigatai clan. He ruled a certain part of Shahrisabz (Kesh). Temur later said the following about his father's property: “I was 21 years old. My father's farming was good this year. Cattle and yearlings also give birth. I appointed a leader for every ten slaves, and I made a heap for every twenty horses. I assigned a slave to every ten head of cattle, a slave to feed every ten camels and a thousand sheep. I entrusted the management of my property to my special trusted slave. It is known from the above words of Amir Temur that Taragai was one of the statesmen of Bahadir era.
Accurate and specific information about Amir Temur's birth and childhood period is rare. And the information that has arrived to date is extremely confusing and separated from reliable sources. For example, the period from Amir Temur's birth to his death and all the activities of the master were included in his scope. In the work titled "Temurnoma", the personality of Amir Temur is greatly deified, causing the reader to doubt. Therefore, relying on what Amir Temur said about himself seems more reliable in every way.
According to the traditions of his time, Amir Muhammad Taragai appointed tutors for his son, who taught him how to ride a horse, hunt, and write letters. As a result, young Temur was sent to a madrasa at the age of seven. When he came to the madrasa, he knew the alphabet perfectly, and in addition to his mother tongue - Turkish, he also perfectly mastered the Persian language. However, many Russian and European scientists wrote that Amir Temur was illiterate, and this belief has become established as "truth" in the eyes of many. But further investigation revealed that Amir Temur was one of the educated and educated rulers of his time. In fact, Amir Temur was a ruler who well understood the incomparable importance of science in the development of the country, and he respected scientists and scholars. After all, he was well aware of the science of medicine, mathematics, catastrophe, architecture and history. The great Arab philosopher Ibn Khaldun, who had the honor of sitting face to face with Amir Timur, said that Jahongir studied the history of the Turkish, Arab, and Persian nations in depth, and was well versed in the most complex aspects of religious, worldly, and philosophical knowledge. he is the one who can master it.
Also, Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi stated that a work called "Manzumayi Turk" was compiled in the chief divan of Amir Temur, and during the writing process of this work, Amir Temur himself read each part of it several times, correcting some places. he edited, and when additional evidence was needed, he sent special people to the places where the incident took place to find out and demanded that the events be covered in a correct, continuous order and in accordance with historical truth. Can such a person be illiterate?
From the age of 12, Amir Temur gave up the games typical of children, and now he was engaged in games related to sycophancy with his peers. It is said that Kaykhusrav, one of the Iranian emperors - the founder of the Ahmani dynasty, used to pretend to be the king and his equals in the games of his childhood and practiced the royal duties.
At the age of 16-18, Temur mastered the art of swordsmanship, spearmanship, and hunting, and at the age of 20, he became a skilled horseman. Now he divides his equals into groups and begins to practice fighting. By the way, the Russian Tsar Peter the First, who was born almost 280 years after Temur, as well as the future famous general Suvorov, who was born almost 400 years after Temur, were engaged in such exercises.
When Amir Temur entered the political arena, Movarounnahr was groaning under the Mongol tyranny. In fact, the lands that Genghis Khan and Botukhon passed through were covered in ashes, cities and villages were destroyed, water structures were demolished or rendered unusable. Genghis Khan gave Movarounnahr to his second son Chigatai Khan as a gift. Mongol khans belonging to the Chigatai clan ruled Movarounnahr for a century and a half. They were not at all interested in beautifying the country, building waterworks and improving the condition of the working people. On the contrary, they looted the material wealth of the country, oppressed the poor masses, and collected various taxes and tributes. Although the Mongol khans ruled in harmony with each other in the past, later in the second quarter of the XNUMXth century, conflicts arose between them, leading to an increase in bloody wars. Naturally, such destructive wars, which continued without a break, exhausted the masses of the impoverished people. So, this was the situation of Movarounnahr and Khurasan when Amir Temur entered the political arena.
When Amir Temur reaches adulthood, he begins to look for ways to free the country from the Mongol tyranny. At first, he gathers his peers around him to rebel against the hated ruler. But unexpectedly, due to the death of his mother, Tekina Begum, the rebellion is canceled or postponed for a certain period. There is no clear information about this. But by the will of fate, at this time, the late Timur along with his father Muhammad Taragai Bahadir was received by the ruler of Movarunnahr, the emir of Kazakhstan. In any case, emir Kazakhstan, sensing Timur's mood or considering his value, showed him favors and even included his granddaughter Oljaoi (Emir Husayn's sister) in his covenant. The aim of the Emir of Kazakhstan was to turn the rebellious Temur to his side. Indeed, the result turned out to be what the Emir of Kazakhstan expected. Later, when talking about the emir of Kazakhstan, Temur said: "The emir of Kazakhstan was not a very powerful ruler. I could easily wrest power from him. But betraying the grace and respect shown to me would be unseemly." Timur gradually gained the confidence of the emir of Kazakhstan and became one of his closest people. Amir Temur, who skillfully used his position, exposed the assassination attempt against Kazakhstan and gained even higher trust. Amir Kazakhstan gives Timur the province of Shibirgan, and later the governorship of Khorezm.
Emir of Kazakhstan was simpler than the rulers of that time and did not see beyond his own nose in politics. Because of this, he offended his closest friend and godfather (son Abdullah's father-in-law), Amir Khusrav Bayonkuli, and turned him into a deadly enemy. Amir Temur, skillfully using the ongoing political conflicts between the rulers, the amir receives a recommendation from Kazakhstan to the Movarunnahr emirate. In fact, emir Khusrav Bayonkuli will soon organize an assassination attempt against the emir of Kazakhstan in coordination with Tughluq Temurkhan. In 1357, in one of the next battles, Khan of Mongolia Kutlug Temur Buldoy destroyed his father-in-law, Emir of Kazakhstan. Abdullah, the son of Emir Kazakhstan, was placed on the throne of Movarounnahr. When Abdullah came to power, the palace became more and more corrupt. According to Fasih Khavafi, Abdullah executed Bayonqulikhan because of a love affair with one of his wives. He will be buried in Bukhara near the cemetery of Sheikh Saifuddin al-Bakharzi.
In 1358, Bayon Sulduz and Amir Haji Barlos joined forces and started a war against Abdullah ibn Kazah. Abdallah ibn Kazakhan was defeated in the battle, left the throne and fled to Andarab, where he died. After the escape of Amir Abdullah ibn Kazakhan, Bayan Sulduz and Haji Barlos captured a part of Movarounnahr and divided it among themselves. In particular, Kesh region touches Haji Barlos. It should be noted that in 1358, the administration of Kesh region was handed over to Haji Barlos - it was a prelude to the transfer of power to the local population after almost a century and a half from the hands of the Mongol invaders.
But the Mongolian ruler Tughluq Temurkhan was disturbed by the recent events in Movarunnahr, that is, the local people's struggle for power and the people's movements emerging in the places. Tughluq Temurkhan was the grandson of Duvakhan from the Chigatai lineage, and planned to include Movarounnahr-Chigatai ulus under his control. The current political situation in Movarounnahr is the impetus for his plans. In 1359, he invaded Movarounnahr with a large army. Haji Barlos, the ruler of Kesh province, fled to Khurasan with his relatives. Naturally, along with his uncle Haji Barlos, 24-year-old Amir Temur was hesitant to travel. But Timur, who was brought up in the spirit of youth, had strong morals and courage, and he could not leave the country to the will of the enemy and stand by as a spectator at a time when difficult times were coming for his country and people. Consequently, he made up his mind and said to his uncle Haji Barlos, "You go, I must be in the country on a difficult day." He followed his uncle to Khorosan and returned to Kesh himself.
This event is described as follows in the "Tuzuklari Temur". "... Tughluq Temur Khan sent an edict to Amir Haji Barlos and Amir Bayazid Jaloyir after taking an army and crossing the Khojand River in order to take the country of Movarunnahr and demanded that we come to him. They consulted with me. They asked for advice about going to Khurasan with their clans or going to Tughluq Temur Khan. I gave them the following advice: If you go to Tughluq Temur Khan, you will have two benefits and one loss, and if you go to Khorasan, you will have two losses and one benefit. They did not join my council (migrated with their people) and went towards Khurasan. I also hesitated, not knowing whether to go to Khurasan or to Tughluq Temur Khan. In this situation, I wrote a letter asking for advice from my elder, and they wrote a reply in this context: "A man asked the fourth caliph Hazrat Ali ibn Abu Talib, may God bless him, that the heavens are a bow, and the earth is a bow. string, events (and disasters) - if it is an arrow, if people are the target of arrows and bows, if the shooter - God Almighty, may his power be even greater, people where do they run? The Caliph replied, "Let the people flee to God." Similarly, run to Tughluq Temurkhan and take his bow and arrow." As soon as I received this answer, my heart was lifted and I decided to go to Tughluq Temur Khan.
In fact, Amir Temur went to the tomb of Tughluq Temur Khan, bearing the phrase either life or death in his heart. Tughluq Temurkhan, who saw that Amir Temur came willingly, showed him compliments. But there was a lack of unity among the amirs of Tughluq Temur Khan. This vice is especially evident in the Movarounnahr campaign. Temur writes about this in his "Tuzuklar": "Again, at this time, news was received that the emirs of Dashti Kipchak of Tughluq Temur Khan had also raised the banner of rebellion. The khan was worried about this, asked me for advice and turned to Jete (Mongolia) comb. He left Movarounnahr to me and wrote a deed and a contract in this regard, and Amir Karachor also handed over the district of Movarounnahr to me." In fact, the period after Amir Abdullah ibn Kazakhstan was the beginning of the reign of Amir Temur in Movarounnahr.
After the death of Amir Kazakhstan, there was no powerful ruler left in Movarounnahr. A state of disunity prevailed in the country. For example, Haji Barlos ruled in Kesh region, Bayazid Jaloyir in Khojand region, Muhammad Khoja Opardi in Shibirgan, Amir Husayn ibn Musallab in Balkh region, local kings ruled in Badakhshan, and Amir Kaykhusrav ruled in Khuttalon. Nizamuddin Shami said that there was no unity among these rulers. On the contrary, they looked at each other with extreme arrogance, and as a result, they caused various disagreements, rebellion, riots and massacres.
But in 1361, Tughluq Temur Khan came to Movaroonnahr for the second time. According to Amir Temur's confession in "Tuzuklari Temur", "Tughluq Temurkhan came to Movarounnahr for the second time in the year 762 Hijri (1360-61 AD) and sent a message inviting me to his presence. I (agreed) went to his prospect and saw him. He broke the agreement between us and handed over Movarounnahr to his son Ilyashoja, and appointed me as a syphos. Seeing that I do not show too much interest in this case, my grandfather is a Fugitive and showed the contract of his grandfather Kabul Khans. In the agreement signed on the steel board, the words "let the khanship be in the hands of the Kabulon generation, and the sipahsolary should be in the hands of the children of Kachuvli Bahadir Khan, they should not interbreed." "After reading this, I accepted the praise for keeping the covenant of the great ones," he says. It is clear from this that Amir Temur, who followed this agreement, did not dare to declare himself the khan of the huge state he founded until the end of his life. Perhaps, introducing the position of khan in his name only, appointing one of the descendants of the Mongol khans as khan, he independently manages the affairs of the kingdom.
According to Fasih Khavafi, after the stability of Movarounnahr, the emir Haji Barlos, who fled to Khorasan, will return to Kesh. Amir Temur, who had been in charge of Kesh for a year, handed over the governorship of Kesh to his uncle, Amir Haji Barlos, and took his close people to the presence of Amir Husayn ibn Musallab ibn Kazakhan, the brother-in-law of the ruler of Balkh. Amir Husayn considered himself a rightful claimant to the Movarunnahr throne because he was the grandson of the former emir of the Chigatai clan, Kazakhstan. Amir Temur plans to form an alliance with Amir Husain and work together to liberate Movarounnahr from Mongol rule. He skillfully exploits Amir Husayn's claim to the Mowarounnahr throne. According to the historian Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, Amir Temur and Amir Husayn fought several times against the Mongol Ilyashhoja, the ruler of Movarounnahr. The mutual alliance of these two emirs created promising opportunities in the history of Movarounnahr. But Amir Husayn's greed and malice towards Amir Temur prevented the realization of the intended goal. In 1362, Amir Temur and Amir Husayn were held captive for 62 days by a Turkman named Alibek in the village of Mohon (Marv). They escape from captivity and go to Seistan. At this time, in the battle for Seistan, Amir Temur was seriously wounded in his right hand and right leg. Later, his right hand becomes almost completely dry and his right leg becomes limp. This is why he was named "Aksok Temur" in Turkish, "Temurlang" in Persian, and "Tamerlan" in Europe in historical sources.
After the death of the Khan of Mongolia, Tughluq Temurkhan, his son Ilyashoja was expelled from Movarunnahr. However, Ilyashoja could not hope for a rich country like Movarounnahr and in 1365 gathered a large army from Mongolia and invaded Movarounnahr. Amir Temur and Amir Husayn fight against Ilyashoja's army with their troops. This battle took place between present-day Chinoz and Tashkent, and probably went down in history as the famous "Battle of Mud". During this battle, heavy rain falls and the ground becomes slippery and sticky mud, making it difficult for both cavalry and infantry to walk. There are also legends that many cavalry and infantry warriors got stuck in the mud, and even Amir Temur fell with his horse. On top of that, when Amir Timur's army was winning over the enemy, Amir Husayn became indecisive and left the battlefield. As a result, the enemy won the battle and both emirs fled to Samarkand and then to Balkh.
Hearing that Ilyashoja's army was approaching Samarkand, the people of the city gathered in the mosque and called to fight against the enemy. Mavlonzada, one of the leaders of Samarkand warlords, will lead the meeting. The people close the streets of the city, lay ambushes on the enemy's path, and hesitate to fight. The Mongol army believed that they would easily capture the city. But seeing the damage on the outskirts of the city, it turns into chaos. The people of the city, under the leadership of the generals, will achieve a brilliant victory over the enemy. Ilyashoja is forced to leave Movarounnahr.
Amir Temur was wintering in Karshi and Amir Husayn was wintering on the banks of the Amudarya when the news spread that Ilyashoja had retreated after being defeated by the Samarkand generals. In the spring of 1366, Amir Temur and Amir Husain reunited again and came to the Koni-gil region of Samarkand city, and from there congratulated the victories of the generals and invited their leaders to their camp. The chiefs of the generals came to the camp believing in the "unbiased" offer of the emirs. However, Amir Husayn ordered the capture of the generals and their execution. Only Mavlonzade survived the execution as a result of Amir Temur's bravery. It is clear from this that Amir Temur and Husayn had different opinions about the warlords. After the movement of the warlords became bloody, both amirs took Samarkand under their control.
But after this event, an irreparable conflict arose between Amir Temur and Amir Husayn.
It is worth noting that in some historical data there are narrations about the previous relationship between some leaders of the warlords' movement and Amir Temur. Such beliefs are also written in the works of the famous orientalist Yu.A. Yakubovsky. However, the relationship between the leaders of the generals and Amir Temur has not been determined. The mature scholar Ibrahim Mominov writes: "In our opinion, the actions taken against the Mongol tyranny brought some of the leaders of the warlords, first of all, their inspiration and ideologist Mavlonzada and Temur, closer to each other and supported each other; for the same reason, chiefs of generals supported and helped Timur to achieve the above goal, mainly in the first period of Temur's activity." Another proof of the correctness of this opinion is that the enmity between Amir Temur and Husain will reach its peak after the massacre of these generals.
After the incident of Sarbador, Husayn Amir began to act hostile towards Timur. Amir Temur, who understood Amir Husayn's evil intention, hesitates to fight before him. In 1370, Amir Temur besieged Balkh with his well-armed army. After several days of fighting, he broke into the city and captured the city fortress. Amir Husayn is captured. Amir Temur hands over Amir Husayn to his ally Kaykhusrav of Khuttalan.
According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi's report, in 1360 Amir Husayn executed Kayqubad, the brother of Kaykhusrav from Khuttalon. In 1361, during the war against the Mongols, he went to the side of Kaikhusrav Khan and married Tuman Qutluq, the khan's cousin, and became his son-in-law. When Kaykhusrav came to Tashkent in 1366, he was quarreling with Amir Temur Husayn. Amir Temur gets close to Kaykhusrav and betroths his daughter Rokiya Khanogho, born from his wife named Tuman-Qutluq, to ​​his son Jahangir Mirza. In 1369, Amir Temur, as a loyalist of Husain, pacified Kaykhusrav, who had rebelled, and persuaded him to flee to Aloy. In 1370, Kaykhusrav came and joined Amir Temur, who rebelled against Husayn. After Amir Husayn was captured, Amir managed to avenge his brother Kayqubad with Temur's permission. Amir Husayn will be executed at the hands of Kaikhusrav.
After the execution of Amir Husayn, Amir Temur became the real owner of Movarounnahr throne. However, the situation in the country was difficult. The region of Movarounnahr had not yet been completely freed from the Mongol invaders, and the hard-working people, condemned to poverty, were going through hard times. After Amir Temur ascended the throne, his first move was to liberate the country from the Mongol invaders and establish an independent centralized state. He introduced new and perfect procedures in the management of the kingdom. Keeping the administrative districts introduced by Kepak Khan (1318-1326) in Movarounnahr, he appoints new thousands and district heads to these districts.
As early as 1370, Amir Temur began to build the city wall of Samarkand. He also built fortresses and palaces. These constructions were the first constructions 150 years after the Mongol conquest.
As academician Ibrahim Mominov described, the life and work of Amir Temur can be clearly seen in two periods.
The first period includes the years 1360-1386. During this period, Timur fought for the creation of a strong centralized state independent of the Mongol Khanate in Movarounnahr, Turkish and Tajik nobles interested in uniting Movarounnahr - together with social forces such as the White Bones - were opposed to arbitrary medieval feudalism, centralization and fought against anti-unification movements, those who sought to keep the country in a divided state, and those who called for mutual wars.
Amir Temur easily included the lands between Amudarya and Syrdarya, as well as Ferghana and Tashkent regions. But the issue of Khorezm was more difficult. During the Mongol period, Khorezm was divided into two parts; Northern Khorezm was part of the Golden Horde together with the city of Urganch, and South Khorezm was part of the Chigatoy ulus together with the city of Kiyot. After the death of Berdibek, the Khan of the Golden Horde (1359), various upheavals began, while the Golden Horde was busy with itself, the Sufi dynasty from the Kunghirot tribe appeared. The eldest of the dynasty, Husain Sufi, unites North and South Khorezm and conquers the cities of Qiyat and Khiva. Amir Temur, who considers himself the heir to all the lands of the Chigatai clan, considers this arbitrary policy of Husayn Sufi illegal and sends an ambassador demanding the return of the lands he conquered in 1372. Naturally, Husayn Sufi refuses to fulfill this request. Then Amir Temur immediately marches on Husayn Sufi with his soldiers. Even before the start of the battle, the city of Qiyot, located on the road, was occupied by Timur's soldiers. Husayn Sufi is depressed and agrees to fulfill all of Timur's demands unconditionally. But Kaykhusrav of Khuttalon, one of the leaders of Amir Temur's army, did not want Amir Temur to grow stronger and harbored animosity towards him. Therefore, after Kaykhusrav had a secret negotiation with Husayn Sufi and persuaded him not to surrender to Timur, he indicated that he would also help in this regard. Husayn Sufi, who believed Kaykhusrav's word, started a battle against Timur. But at the first blow, there is a splinter. Husayn Sufi escaped from Timur, took refuge in Urganch fortress and died there soon after. His brother Yusuf Sofi (1373-1380) will take the throne instead. Amir Temur offers peace to Yusuf Sufi. One of the terms of the peace was to marry Sevin Beka (granddaughter of Uzbek Khan), the daughter of Husayn Sufi, to his eldest son Jahangir Mirza. Yusuf Sufi agrees. Kaykhusrav's treachery is revealed and he is sentenced to death. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi's work "Zafarnama" and the information given by Abdurazzaq Samarkandi, according to the decree of Khan-Mongol Suyurgotmish Khan appointed by Amir Temur, Kaykhusrav was brought to Samarkand and handed over to the servants of Amir Husayn, whom he once executed. handed over This event was the first punishment of a powerful ruler against a rebellious general.
After Amir Timur returned after making peace, Yusuf Sufi, instead of fulfilling the peace agreements, in 1373 again put Qiyat under his control. Hearing this news, Amir Temur again marches to Khorezm. However, the work is not progressing rapidly. Yusuf Sufi immediately surrenders to Amir Temur and promises to fulfill all conditions. As a result, southern Khorezm was annexed to the kingdom of Amir Temur. But the victory does not go far. In 1375, Yusuf Sufi, who took advantage of the fact that Amir Temur was fighting with Uruskhan of the White Horde, recaptured southern Khorezm. The conflict between the two continued until 1379. Finally, after besieging Urganch for three months, Amir Temur took the city under his control, and southern Khorezm was completely annexed. But in 1388, with the help of Khan of the Golden Horde, Tokhtamysh Khan, another rebellion began in Khorezm. Already, from 1372 to 1388, Amir Temur marched to Khorezm five times. Finally, the owner, who was extremely angry at the last rebellion of 1388, ordered to raze the city of Urgancha to the ground and plant barley in its place. As a result, the city was destroyed, its inhabitants were moved to Samarkand, and a certain part of the city was plowed and barley was planted. Amir Temur was allowed to restore the city only in 1391.
The entrepreneur Temur managed to clear the soil of Movarounnahr from the invading Mongols and establish a powerful centralized authority. After that, from 1386 until the last days of his life, he led a war of "conquest" against neighboring countries. During this period, there are three main campaigns of the owners - three-year, five-year and seven-year campaigns.
From 1370 to 1402, Sahibgiron Temur fought with Khurasan, Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, India, the Golden Horde and Turkey, and, in the words of Karl Marx, extended the territory of the kingdom to the Chinese wall in the east, Moscow in the north, and In the west, he expanded to the Mediterranean Sea, and in the south to the borders of Egypt. It is said that he had to fight 18 times for this. However, if it is calculated based on the complex of real years (chronology) in Fasih Khavafi's work "Mujmali Fasihiy", it will be known that Amir Temur made more than 1370 military campaigns from 30 to the end of his life.
When talking about Amir Temur's "invasion" campaigns, it should not be forgotten that during which period, which ruler ruled the kingdom without war and speed? Which battle in history ended without casualties, casualties or massacres? Also, which people welcomed the conqueror who invaded their country from abroad with their arms, or recorded his deeds as noble virtues in their annals? It is known from history that any nation, whether it was just or unjust, saw the conqueror who invaded its territory as an invader and was in a hostile mood.
Naturally, Amir Temur's military campaigns were also interpreted as invasion campaigns. Based on these, historical and scientific works were created, expressions unworthy of Temur were used by some individuals, stories and books containing slander and hatred were written. However, Amir Temur was a feudal ruler similar to the rulers of that time. He fought to establish a centralized state Movarounnahr. About 200 years after Amir Temur, the ruler of Russia, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible), who belonged to the Rurich dynasty, continued the work started by his grandfather Ivan III and managed to unite several small Russian principalities and establish a unified Russian state. Not limited to this, he also brought under his control the Khanate of Kazan (1552), Khanate of Astrakhan (1556) and Khanate of West and East Siberia, which had been living independently for several centuries. There is no end to the bloodthirstiness and oppression of Ivan IV. Or take Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, who belonged to the Romanov dynasty. He fought with Sweden for 21 years (1700-1721), and with Turkey in the South for 6 years for the perspective of Russia. As they say, ride a camel - see far, Peter also made invasion plans to enter the feudal khanates in Central Asia under Russian control in order to penetrate into India in the future. Based on this plan, the Russian Empire conquered Central Asian khanates one after another in the 60s. If the information given in historical sources is to be believed, then the weight of massacres of Tsarist Russia in Central Asia alone exceeds all the massacres of Amir Temur. Despite this, the Russian people proudly mention the names of their rulers who were willing to shed unjust blood for the development of their homeland.
True, as a result of the battles led by Amir Temur, the blood of thousands of innocent people was shed. But if the cause and essence of the wars in the history of mankind are analyzed on a scientific basis, all the complications will be resolved one by one. Therefore, the era and historical conditions in which the master Temur lived are distinguished by their uniqueness. At that time, the situation was such that either you defeat your enemy and increase the power of your kingdom, or your conquerors mock you and conquer your country. Naturally, Amir Temur was also a child of that time, a representative of such social life, more precisely, one of the rulers of that time.
Amir Temur starts his world campaigns from the 80s of the XIV century. However, there was a reason behind all his military campaigns. The famous Hungarian tourist German Vamberi in his work entitled "History of Bukhara or Movarounnahr" evaluated Amir Temur, "He loaded the books of the Bursa library on pack animals and moved them to Samarkand. Now can this person be called a barbarian, merciless? Therefore, the opinions of those who put Timur on the same line as Genghis and called him a barbarian, tyrant, and robber are two major mistakes. He was primarily an Asian general. He used his victorious soldiers and weapons according to the style of his time. If you look carefully at his actions and wars, which were blamed by his enemies, it always happened in the form of punishment for a crime. True, the punishment was severe, but always justified. Seek revenge for the soldiers who were killed by treachery in Isfahan and Shiraz. And the people of Damascus were old adherents of Ma'awiya, and undoubtedly belonged to the martyrdom of the family of Husain (son of Imam Husain, Imam Husain). His tragic death angered Temur. Similar events are either exaggerated or exaggerated by the enemy. Or those who appeared for reasons unknown to us" - he writes.
Amir Temur's campaign against Tokhtamysh Khan (1395) was carried out as such a punishment. In 1376, the ruler of the White Horde, Uruskhan, did not participate in the march of Mangishloq (Mingqishloq) governor Toikhoja Oghlon. Enraged by this, Uruskhan executed Toykhoja Oglan. Tokhtamishkhan, the son of Toikhoja Oghlan, flees to Temur and offers his services. Temur studied the essence of the matter thoroughly and assumed that he would have his own man in the White Horde. he won't. But Tokhtamysh Khan returns defeated. In the winter of 1376, Amir Temur himself went to battle against the White Horde. However, due to the cold, the fighting is stopped. Only in 1379, Amir Temur defeated Uruskhan, placed Tokhtamysh Khan on the throne of the White Horde, and returned to Samarkand after executing Uruskhan.
But when Tokhtamysh Khan became the Khan of the White Horde, he disappointed Amir Temur's hopes. In his early years, Tokhtamysh Khan willingly accepted any help given by Temur, and from the outside, he seemed grateful and loyal to his patron. In practice, he worked as a political trickster. After some time, an independent policy was carried out, and even Valine'mat started actions that were against the interests of Timur. Especially in 1381, after defeating the ruler of the Golden Horde, Mamai, and gaining power in the Joji ulus, he worked to increase the power of the Golden Horde and restore its great statesmanship policy.
In 1387, after Tokhtamish invaded Movarounnahr with the intention of looting, Temur also had the obligation to fight against him. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, at the end of 1388, Tokhtamish gathered a large army, in addition to Turko-Mongol troops, special soldiers from Russian, Bulgarian, Cherkasy, Alan, Moksha, Bashkir and Crimean peoples. made squads. Tokhtamysh went to war in the winter and sent part of his army to besiege Savron, the border city of Timur's kingdom, and sent the other part to Zernuk fortress near the confluence of Aris river with Syrdarya. Temur clashed with the advance units of Tokhtmish's army near Sirdarya, defeated them and forced the rest to flee to the other side of the river. In the spring of 1389, Temur sent an army to the White Horde and wanted to meet Tokhtamysh's army there. However, Tokhtamysh abandons the siege of Savron and takes his army into the steppe.
Amir Temur, after seeing the upcoming battle with Tokhtamysh, started a military campaign in the winter of 1390-1391. Leaving Samarkand and heading towards Tashkent, he spends the winter with his entire army near Chinozz. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, Amir Temur went from Tashkent to Khojand to visit the mausoleum of Sheikh Maslahaddin before the battle, circumambulated the mausoleum, and returned to Tashkent after offering 10000 dinars. Amir Temur got sick in Tashkent and stayed in bed for 40 days. In the second half of January 1391, he recovered a little and went into battle. Nizamuddin Shami said that he gave big gifts to all his close people and army commanders. After that, Cholpon sent all his wives and princesses to Samarkand, except for Mulk Agha, and on January 1391, 22, he left Tashkent and headed towards O'tror. Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi shows this trip as January 1391, 19. When Amir Temur reached Kara Saman region near O'tror, ​​Tokhtamish Khan's ambassadors came to him.
Amir Temur Tokhtamishkhan orders to welcome the ambassadors. During the reception ceremony, the ambassadors presented Amir Temur with many gifts, including a falcon and 9 horse-drawn blankets. Amir Temur took the falcon and placed it in his hand in order not to spoil the reception pictures, but he did not even look at the falcon. This shows that he is not interested in these gifts at all. The ambassadors respectfully kneel down and hand Tokhtamysh Khan's letter to Amir Temur. In the letter, Tokhtamysh Khan asked Amir Temur to forgive him for the kindnesses shown to him and the favors he had done to him, and to forgive him for his malicious actions against Temur. Also, at the end of the letter, Tokhtamysh Khan promised to remain loyal and obey all orders of Temur. It is clear from this letter that Timur was well aware that it was somehow inconvenient for Tokhtamysh Khan to have a big battle at this time. In his reply letter to Tokhtamysh Khan, Temur reproaches him for his misdeeds and mentions how Tokhtamysh Khan helped him in his struggle to take the throne in the White Horde and later in the Golden Horde. He also dwells on the fact that Tokhtamish Khan, after becoming a powerful khan, stabbed Temur in the back, that is, when Temur was busy in the Persian-Iraq war, Tokhtamish Khan brought an army to Movaroonnahr. Consequently, he ends his reply letter by saying that he does not believe in Tokhtamishkhan's promises and cannot accept the proposal of reconciliation.
As a matter of fact, Amir Temur understood Tokhtamysh Khan's trick well, so he did not hesitate to fight and on April 1391, 22, he started a military campaign against Tokhtamysh Khan with an army of 200. Amir Temur and his army collided with the troops of Tokhtamysh Khan at Kundurcha or Kunduzcha, a tributary of the Cheremshan River in the present-day Kuybyshev region. In the battle, Tokhtamysh Khan was completely defeated. In the words of Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, "Tokhtamish Khan had the river Itil in his front, and a deadly sword in his back."
No matter how heavy Tokhtamysh Khan's defeat in 1391 was, he was not completely crushed yet. According to the Arab authors al-Maqrizi, al-Asadi and al-Ayniy, during the years 1394 and 1395, Tokhtamish Khan sought a way to get closer to the Egyptian Sultan al-Malik al-Zahir Berpuk, which was equally dangerous for both sides. Encouraged to help in the fight against Timur. Also, already in 1393, Tokhtamysh Khan became close to Lithuanian grand prince Vitovts and signed an agreement with his brother Polish king Jagiellon.
In 1394, while Amir Temur was staying in Sheki (present-day Azerbaijan), the army of Tokhtamysh Khan passed through Darband and began to plunder the towns and villages of Shirvan. Amir Temur, knowing that his confrontation with Tokhtamysh Khan was inevitable and there was no point in delaying it, ordered his troops to prepare for a military campaign and sent the intelligent and experienced Shamsiddin Olmaliki, who was well versed in embassy rules, as ambassador to Tokhtamysh Khan. will send The ambassador went to Tokhtamish Khan and handed over Temur's letter to him. According to Nizamiddin Shami, Tokhtamish Khan apologizes in his reply letter and expresses his readiness to reconcile. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi's report, Tokhtamish Khan wanted to make peace with Temur, but changed his mind at the request of his emirs and handed over a letter written with rude expressions to the ambassador. After that, hostilities began on both sides.
On April 1395, 15, a decisive life-and-death battle began between the army of Amir Temur and the army of Tokhtamysh Khan in the valley of the Terek River. This battle not only decided the fate of Tokhtamysh Khan, but also decided the fate of the entire Golden Horde.
Tokhtamysh Khan's army could not withstand the fierce attacks and began to flee. The left wing of Tokhtamysh Khan was broken, his troops were disorganized, and as a result, this battle ended with the escape of Tokhtamysh Khan. When Amir Temur invaded the residence of Tokhtamysh Khan, he acquired a great wealth and treasure. In order to capture Tokhtamysh Khan and destroy the rest of his army, he chased him day and night with a selected army. Now Amir Temur decided to remove Tokhtamysh Khan from the political board completely and go to the western lands of the Golden Horde on the Dnieper side. According to the information of Nizamiddin Shami and Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, Amir Temur chased Tokhtamish Khan and looted the towns and villages he met on his way. Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi writes that Amir Temur also invaded Moscow. But a number of Russian historians deny that Amir Temur invaded Moscow. For example, in the book "Kulikovskaya Battle", the author writes, "Temur did not take Moscow. He only went as far as Yelets and returned. It seems that he was afraid of the great prince to go to Moscow. Also, the authors of the work entitled "The Golden Horde and its Fall" also spoke about it, "About the Russian land of Timur, who knew well the geography and history of Central Asia and pre-Asia inhabited by Muslim peoples, Russian principalities and did not have even the most basic information about Moscow," they wrote.
First of all, it should be noted that Amir Temur was also a person who was well aware of tari. Who can say that Amir Temur is not aware of the history of Genghis Khan and Botukhon's invasion of Russian soil? Or maybe he does not know the history of the establishment of the Golden Horde state and the dependent peoples under it? However, from the day Amir Temur Movarounnahr ascended the throne, he considered the Golden Horde to be the most dangerous enemy of his kingdom, therefore, he conducted politics in the style of reconciliation with great caution. Therefore, Amir Temur was always aware of the internal and external policy of the Golden Horde. Logical evidence also shows that he was partially aware of the history of the Russian principalities, which had been living under the Mongol rule for nearly 170 years.
Amir Temur persecuted Tokhtamysh Khan and tried to destroy his material, cultural and military bases. Consequently, Haji Tarkhan (Astrakhan), one of the major trade and cultural centers, which was the lifeblood of the Golden Horde, ordered his soldiers to loot it for ten days and then set fire to the city. The same fate befell the former capital of the Golden Horde, Saray (Saray Botu), and the new capital, Saray Berka. Also, Amir Temur completely destroyed the economic power of the richest lands of the Golden Horde - Crimea, North Caucasus and Lower Povolgie. With this, the foundation of the Golden Horde was destroyed, and it was doomed to decay and collapse.
Amir Temur's victory over Tokhtamysh Khan in 1395 was historically very important. After all, after the last blow given by Amir Temur to Tokhtamysh Khan, the Golden Horde could not recover and became a second-rate state. Under his leadership, prospects were opened for the peoples, including the Russian people, who have been in trouble for almost 170 years. A. Yu. Yakubovsky writes about this: "Timur's victory over Tokhtamysh in 1395, the destruction and burning of Astrakhan, and especially the capital of the Golden Horde, Saray Berka, were the only events in Central Asia and South became very important not only for Eastern Europe, but also for Russia. The lame Temur, who plundered and destroyed the Ryazan land, although he left a bad name in the memory of the Russian people with his evil deeds, but objectively he did a great service to the Russian land by defeating Tokhtamish, but he himself did not notice it at all."
In 1402, Amir Temur fought with Turkish ruler Bayazid Yildirim (Yashin). In fact, this conflict, caused by Bayazid's arrogance, ended with Bayazid's XNUMX army being surrounded, defeated and captured near the city of Ankara.
Amir Temur explains the reasons and details of the battle with Bayazid Yildirim in his "Tuzuklari" as follows: "The voice of my glory and power reached the ears of the Roman emperor. When he heard the news that I had conquered the castles of Sivos and Malatia and their dependent lands, and that I had dispersed all the soldiers inside the castles and scattered them all around, the zeal in his veins was activated and he escaped from the attack of my soldier and took refuge under the emperor. At the instigation of Kara Yusuf Turkman, he decided to attack me. Caesar was the cause of the disaster, and the destruction of his state was imminent. Because he flew at the instigation of Kara Yusuf and raised an army against me. In addition, he called the soldiers of Egypt and Syria for help.
I decided to divide my army into three divisions. But since the matter of victory and defeat in battle is hidden under the veil of destiny, I held a council with my commanders about it. They advised the Sipohis to start a war. Even so, I advised him to quench the fire of the stubbornness with bitter words and sent a letter to the stubborn. The summary of the letter was as follows: "All thanks be to God Almighty, who created the heavens and the earth, who brought most of the countries of the seven climates under my command, and the sultans and governors of the world bowed down to me and put the obedience of the people in their ears. May God bless his servant, who knew his value and restrained his feet of courage without exceeding the limit. It is known to the people of the world who your descendants are. Therefore, do a job worthy of your status and do not dare to put your foot forward, you will sink into the mire of painful work and fall into the pit of trouble. A bunch of instigators who were expelled from the door of Iqbal took a place in your shelter to do their malicious work and woke up the sleeping conspiracy. Do not open the door of calamity and calamity to your country at the instigation of those. As soon as this letter arrives, send Kara Yusuf to me. Otherwise, the curtain of fate will open on your face when the ranks of the two armies clash."
Amir Temur's ambassador to Bayazid Yildirim brought a refusal. Ibn Arabshah stated that in his reply letter, Bayazid demanded that Amir Temur bow down to his presence, otherwise he wrote insulting words that Amir Temur's wives would be divorced three times (talaq bi-s-salosa) . Naturally, it was impossible for Amir Temur not to enter the battle after such a weak response. In February 1401, Amir Temur led an army against Bayazid from Azerbaijan. Finally, on July 1402, 25, Bayezid's army was defeated in a battle near Ankara, and Bayezid and his harem were captured. His son, Prince Suleiman, flees the battlefield.
According to historical data, Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, who wrote down what he saw with his own eyes in this battle, testified that when Sultan Bayazid Yildirim of Turkey was defeated in the battle and was leaving the battlefield, Sultan Mahmud Khan (Amir Temur) of Movarunnahr khan appointed by) takes him prisoner and sends him to the camp of Amir Temur. Bayazid, with his hand tied, was brought to Amir Temur at nightfall. At the same time, Amir showed Temur royal kindness and ordered them to untie Bayazid's hands and show him kindness. Then he took Bayazid to his side and had a friendly conversation.
After Sultan Bayazid was defeated in the battle and taken prisoner, L. Lyangle writes about the attitude shown to him by Amir Temur: "When Temur was tired from the battle that lasted all day and was resting in bed, he entered his tent Bayazid is brought in with his legs tied. Temur, the winner, who was suddenly excited to see Bayazid, could not hold back his tears. The leader came to Bayazid's perspective, ordered to release him from the band and took him to his reception room.
Timur sat his prisoner next to him and said: "See your unhappiness for yourself, Bayazid! This is the fruit of the tree you planted. I easily made a condition for you. Your refusal has forced me to do something against you that I never wanted to do. I did not wish to trouble you, but rather to help you fight against your enemies. Your stubbornness ruined everything. Come on! I know how you would treat me and my army when victory was on your side. Nevertheless, be calm, put the danger out of your mind, I want to praise Allah for my victory by saving your life," he said to Bayazid near his residence. orders them to build a special tent and show him royal favors.
However, some historians who hate Amir Temur tried to portray the relationship between Temur and Bayazid in different colors. It seems that Temur did not free Bayazid from the chains, but rather put such heavy handcuffs on him that the prisoner could hardly move. In another story, it is said that Temur locked Bayazid in a low steel cage and used the cage as a ladder when he was riding a horse. They said that Temur used to bring Bayazid to his parties in order to humiliate him, while Bayazid saw his half-naked wives and daughters limping around. Therefore, since then, Ottoman rulers kept concubines without marrying them, fearing that their wives would be humiliated.
According to another narration, one of Bayazid's spies was visiting Movarounnahr and excitedly talking to his ruler about the ever-growing fame of Amir Temur, whispering that precautions should be taken against Temur. The last phrase of the spy is not liked by the proud and stubborn Bayazid, and in anger he says, "What can lame Temur do?!" he shouts. Union, this word reaches Timur from ear to ear. As fate would have it, after Temur fought with Bayazid and took Bayazid prisoner, he put Bayazid on the horse's place in the one-man golden carriage he brought with him, put on a golden yugan in his mouth, and sat in the carriage. holding a whip with a golden handle, he pointed at Bayazid and said: "Blessed Sultan! As you can see, one of my legs is lame, I am disabled, and you are healthy, therefore, if you turn around in this cart and watch it. There are a lot of illogical sayings and narrations like this. Amir Temur's fight against Bayazid Yildirim was a fair fight according to the requirements of his time. Commenting on this battle, the famous scientist A. Yu. Yakubovsky says about another service of Amir Temur to the European nations: "In 1400, Timur's soldiers fought against the Western Turkish sultan Bayezid I and the Egyptian sultan Faraj, far from Central Asia. goes At that time, Timur had captured many nations, for example, Sivas in Asia Minor, Aleppo (Aleppo) in Syria. In 1402, Timur fought with Bayazid for the second time near Ankara. This battle was one of the biggest battles of that time. More than 200 soldiers from both sides will participate. In this battle near Ankara, Ottoman sultan Bayazid was completely defeated and Bayazid was captured. This victory was significant not only for the history of Asia. With this victory, Temur served the people of Europe for the second time. This victory near Ankara and Beyazid's capture pushed back the occupation of Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Turks-Ottomans by almost 50 years.
In fact, if we refer to the documents presented in Ismail Sulaimanov's article entitled "Europe's Gratitude to Amir Temur", the European countries - King Charles VI of France, King Henry IV of England, the ruler of Germany, the rulers of Italy and Spain, in turn, won Amir Temur over Bayazid. they sent letters expressing their deep gratitude to the alaba and saving Europe from the danger of Bayazid. For example, in the letter kept in the British Museum and addressed to Amir Temur, King Henry IV turned to the world-loving Amir Temur, and we were extremely happy and relieved to hear that by the grace of God you and our common enemy Bayazid were defeated in a short period of time. For this, we gave countless thanks to the creator. Even the kings of Europe were not satisfied with this and decided to build a special exhibition museum hall in order to immortalize the world's services to Europe. The initiator of this work was the King of Germany, who built a room in a special oriental style for Amir Temur in one of the palaces of his summer residence in Potsdam. In the picture, Amir Temur is being brought to the victorious ruler Bayazid on the throne, surrounded by an archon, eight Abyssinians in a cage on his shoulders. Jahangir is proud of those who have won.
Beyazid's beloved younger wife, a beautiful woman kneeling at Timur's feet. The woman is begging Temur to spare a spoonful of her ruler's blood and save his life. And Jahangir doesn't even care about him. His two eyes were on Bayazid, as if saying: "Caesar, you did not listen to me, now how are you?"
Jahangir Amir Temur cleared Movarunnahr of Mongol invaders and established a centralized great state. History assigned him the great task of destroying the foundations of the Mongol Empire, as powerful as the Golden Horde. Sohibqiran fulfilled this task with great courage and opened the way for the Russian principalities and the peoples of Eastern Europe to get rid of the Mongol oppression for almost 170 years. Finally, in 1402, the Turkish sultan defeated Bayazid and freed all European countries from a terrible threat. All these are historical facts that cannot be denied.
Some historians put Amir Temur on the same level with Genghis Khan in bloodthirsty invasion. What is the legacy of Genghis Khan in his country? Only a giant turtle carved out of stone remains in the Kerulen meadow. (This turtle was placed next to Genghis Khan's tent.) Historical documents and ancient monuments testify to Amir Temur's activities.
When talking about the personality of the world-famous great leader Amir Timur, in order to imagine what his appearance is like, first of all, we should refer to the information given in the work of his enemy, the famous Arab historian Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Arabshah entitled "Ajaib ul-maqdur fi akhbori Taimur" it is not surprising if it is appropriate if we apply.
"Temur was a handsome, tall man. His forehead was open, his head was large, his voice was sonorous, and his strength was not lacking in courage. His face was bright red. His shoulders were broad, his fingers were full, his ribs were long, and his muscles were strong. He had a long beard. His right hand and right leg were crippled, he was pleasant to look at, and he did not despise death. Even at the age of 80, he did not lose his intelligence and courage. He was an enemy of liars and did not like jokes. He did not allow talking about murder, violation of women's honor, rape and robbery of oppressed and oppressed people. He loved to hear the truth, no matter how bitter and hard it was. Good or bad circumstances had no effect on his mood. A friend of a brave soldier, this man, who was extremely brave and heroic, could force people to respect him and obey him.
His contemporaries wrote down a lot of information about Amir Temur's character, behavior and qualities. For example, Barbara Bray, based on the testimony of an Arab chronicler, writes the following in her article titled Ibn Khaldun:
"Temur was tall, broad-shouldered and strong, with a big head, broad forehead, physically very strong, white skin, red face, full fingers. His beard was flowing, one arm was paralyzed, his right leg was lame, his eyes were grassy, ​​burning, his voice was loud, he did not know what it was to be afraid of death. Even when he reached the age of eighty, he kept his spiritual and physical strength."
The owner, Amir Temur, is a lively and complex person. One of his characteristics was that before deciding on a matter, he would consult with knowledgeable scholars in that field, and then make a clear and firm decision. His conferences with scientists were held in different ways and in different ways. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, Amir Temur often had personal conversations with representatives of the sciences of medicine, mathematics, astronomy, history, literature and linguistics, as well as famous people in the fields of theology and religion. In these conversations, about the important issues of life, besides Movarounnahr and Khorezm, the Golden Horde, the White Horde, Khurasan, India, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, as well as the affairs of the kingdom, which includes the entire Maghrib. was talking about.
In the court of Amir Temur, many intellectuals enjoyed the favor of the ruler and served. For example, Maulana Abdujabbar Khorazmi, Maulana Shamshuddin Munshi, Maulana Abdullah Lison, Maulana Badriddin Ahmed, Maulana No'monuddin Khorazmi, Khoja Afzal, Maulana Alauddin Koshi, Jalal Khokiy are among them. Amir Temur paid great attention to the development of such fields as mathematics, geometry, architecture, astronomy, literature, history, and music. He had a heart-to-heart conversation, especially with master craftsmen. Lyangle writes about this: "Temur was a compliment to scientists. Along with his knowledge, he gave confidence to those who saw his honesty. He often came down from the throne to talk with historians, philosophers, as well as all those who were talented in science, office and other works. Because Temur focused on taking care of these areas.
According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi's story, in 1403, Amir Temur called a council of scholars in Boilkon and gave a speech. He said in his speech: "Famous men of science and religion have been helping kings with their advice. And you are not doing this to me. My goal is to establish justice in the country, strengthen order and peace, improve the life of citizens, expand construction in our country, develop our kingdom. You should help me with your advice in carrying out these tasks."
It is known that Amir Temur was in close contact with people, looked at the people of knowledge, the people of craft, the people of religion and the people of work with the eyes of hope and showed them high compliments. According to Alisher Navoi, Turkish literature began to develop on a large scale in the country from the time of Timur's reign. Alisher Navoi writes the following about Amir Temur's great passion for poetry: "Temur Kuragon... although he does not ask to recite poetry, but he recites poetry and prose in such a good place and position, read a verse like him. There are thousands of good verses. The blessed name of ul hazrat is abbreviated as bolgai and ul latoyif. I will tell the story because Miron Shah Mirzo had a lot of trouble in Tabriz, he found a deviation in his attitude and temperament and began to take a lot of pictures. In Samarkand, they brought this variety to His Highness, those who have three names, the mufrit (extremely - TF) are alardur for drinking beer. My verdict is that the adjutant (adjutant - TF) should run with the miod (term - TF) and let the three of them be killed. Alardin killed one of them, Haja Abdul Qadir, one of them was Maulana Muhammad Khokhi, and one of them was Ustad Qutb Noi, Tavochi, and sent them to jail (punishment - TF). But Khaja Abdul Qadir ran away, became a qalandar, put himself in a state of madness, and was hiding from property to property. It became known that they made a high demand. The verdict was that they should be caught. When he was on the throne, Haja Faqir was dragged to the throne instead of leaving it to madness. Andin Burunkim, a political judge, because one of Hoja's perfections was the knowledge of Quranic memorization and recitation, and he made it possible to recite the Quran with a loud voice (TF). I read this verse after His Majesty's anger turned to grace, and I looked towards the people of grace and perfection.
Abdol zi biym chang dar and muskhaf zad.
Qalandar dusted the Koran out of fear.
Andin then complimented and educated Khojaga and made him a noble and official in his supreme assembly.
According to historical sources, during the nearly 150-year reign of the Mongols, not a single visible construction or water structure was created in Movarounnahr. At the initiative of Amir Temur, in 1365 Karshi, in 1370 Samarkand, in 1380 Kesh (Shahrisabz) were again surrounded by defensive walls. Also, special attention was paid to the construction of reservoirs, dams, ditches, and development of new lands for the welfare of the people and development of the country. Realizing that the importance of trade in raising the economic situation of the country is incomparable, the ruler builds bazaars, rastakar and tims, and establishes various workshops and develops the art of folk handicrafts.
Amir Temur decided to radically change the beauty of his capital Samarkand. Consequently, a number of buildings such as Samarkand Koksaroy, Bibikhanim mosque and madrasa, Shahi-zinda mausoleum were created, some of these buildings are still showing off their beauty. He also built parks around Samarkand such as Shamal Garden, Dilkusho Garden, Chinar Garden, Bihisht Garden and Nav Garden.
Amir Temur wanted to make Samarkand the biggest and most beautiful city in the world. He built small villages around the city and gave them the name of the biggest cities in the world. For example: Baghdad, Damascus, Egypt, Cheroz Sultanate, Madrid, Paris are among them. It should also be said that the name of the city of Asaka in Andijan region was not taken from the Japanese city of Osaka.
The owner did not spare the treasure in the way of the country's prosperity. Bridges were built over Zarafshan, Amudarya and Syrdarya. Canals were laid around Tashkent and the village of Ohangaron was founded. In Bukhara, Shahrisabz, Ferghana, Turkestan (Yassa) and other cities, caravanserais, baths, mausoleums, madrasas, as well as rabots and cisterns were built on intercity caravan routes, creating conditions for the development of trade and commerce.
Amir Temur carried out improvement and construction works not only in Movarounnahr, but also in lands far away from Movarounnahr. In particular, the huge irrigation facilities built in the Kabul valley and the Mugan desert testify to the owner's great heart. The well-known orientalist, academician VVBartold Amir spoke about Temur's construction activities: "The idea that Temur was engaged in destruction everywhere except Samarkand is absurd; he also carried out huge irrigation works in places far from Samarkand, such as the Kabul valley and the Mughan desert," expressed the historical truth. But Varomodin, who prepared part I of the 2nd volume of VVBartold's works for publication, says: "VVBartold exaggerated the construction activities of Temur in the conquered countries, because he limited himself to the few positive actions of Temur mentioned here and compared the destruction he caused with the results that arose from them. it won't happen," he writes. In our opinion, VARomodin did not consistently study the rules and regulations established by the rulers before and after Amir Temur in the countries under his control.
According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, in 1399 Amir Timur ordered his grandson Abu Bakr Mirza (son of Miron Shah Mirza) to restore the city of Baghdad within a year. Also, on the basis of a specific project prepared by engineers, Boilkon will rebuild the fortress-city. A lot of residential buildings, markets, squares, baths, parks, avenues are built from adobe bricks. The city is supplied with water by creating a canal from the Araks River. Boilkon fortress-city will be rebuilt within a month. The city defensive circular wall and other structures will be completed within a year. The length of the circular wall was two hundred thousand four hundred gas.
Based on the above-mentioned historical information and concrete evidence, there is no doubt that the one-sided negative opinions that "only ruins remained in the lands that Temur conquered" are groundless, on the contrary, Amir Temur was also a great creative builder.
Amir Temur was a world famous military leader and the most powerful ruler of his time. Amir Temur's military skill was shown in two directions, in the reorganization of military units and as a commander-in-chief.
Amir Temur's army consisted of divisions of tens, hundreds, and thousands, each of which was led by special military commanders. The union of units is called a troop. A group consisting of several troops is called an army. Each of these parts, depending on the circumstances, was called the right hand - burungur, the left hand - juvongur, advanced (avant-garde) - manglai. Cavalry, infantry and advanced (reconnaissance) units were highly valued among the types of troops.
Amir Khoja Saifuddin, Amir Burunduk, Khudoy Husayn Bahadir, Amir Sulaiman Khosh, Amir Akbugo, Amir Saribugo, Sheikh Ali Bahadir, Temur Tosh, Barot Khoja, Amir Davus Barlos, Umar Abbas, Mahmudshah in Amir Temur's palace. Bukhari, Amir Muayid Arlot, Tuman Berdibek, Amir Shah Malik, Amir Sheikh Nuriddin and other military leaders served.
After Amir Temur returned victorious from the famous seven-year campaign in 1404, he organized a great procession in honor of his victory. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, this event was held with great ceremony. Rui González de Clavijo, the ambassador of the King of Castile sent to Samarkand - to Timur's palace, wrote in detail in his "Diary".
But the master Amir Temur hesitated to march against China, famous in history, after coming back from the seven-year campaign, before he had time to rest. After all, in 1368, the Ming dynasty came to power in China through a coup d'état. As a result, the former "Mongol rulers" will be expelled from the territory of China. The capital of the empire is moved from Beijing (Khanbaliq) to Nanjing. There is a busy commercial caravan route between Movarounnahr and China, and this caravan route was skillfully described by Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi in his "Zafarnama".
According to the information of Amir Temur and the historical sources of the Min dynasty, academician VVBarthold, a scholar of the history of Central Asia, in 1387, Amir Temur sent a man named Maulana Hafiz along with the ambassador as a tribute of 15 horses and two camels. After that, horses and camels were sent as customs every year. In addition to the 1392 duty, a bundle of cloth was also sent. When these ambassadors were returning from China, the Chinese emperor sent them to Samarkand, including 1200 Muslims who had settled in the Gansu region during the reign of the former Mongol dynasty. In 1394, Amir Temur sent 200 horses to China. A Chinese translation of the label sent by Amir Temur to the Chinese emperor is also provided. According to another source, in which year it is unknown, the number of horses sent by Timur to China reached 1000. The Chinese side also sent precious stones and paper money in exchange for these gifts (the paper money was probably spent by the ambassadors in China itself). It is true that the first ambassador from China came to Timur in 1395. The names of the ambassadors were An Zhi-dao and Go Tzi. The ambassadors came to Samarkand not through Kashkar and Ferghana, as usual, but through Semirechye. However, these ambassadors were lucky to return to China only after Temur's death.
It is known from historical sources about Amir Temur that Amir Temur received the Chinese ambassadors at the end of 1397 when they were wintering on the banks of the Syr Darya. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, the ambassadors brought many gifts and received the favor of the ruler and were allowed to return. If we did not know the information about the capture of the Chinese ambassadors, - writes VVBartold, - then from these words, we would have thought that the ambassadors returned to China.
The detention of the ambassadors certainly did not bode well. After the end of the Mongol dynasty in China, the coming to power of the Ming dynasty, 100 thousand Muslim citizens were executed by order of the Chinese emperor. It cannot be said that Amir Temur was not aware of these events. Because according to the writings of Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, Nizamuddin Shami and Ghiyaziddin Ali, in 1398, Amir Temur went to China with the goal of exterminating the "pagans".
In the winter of 1399, while he was wintering in Karabagh, news came that the Chinese emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty, had died. The report also exaggerated that the late emperor ordered the extermination of 100 Muslim citizens before his death under some flimsy pretext and thus completely cleansed his country of Islam. Naturally, the owner, who considered himself to be the patron of the religion of Islam, was determined to enter the mind of the blasphemous emperor.
In 1404, when Amir Temur was preparing to march against China, he founded two new uluses and gave gifts to his two young grandsons. One of them belonged to the 10-year-old Ulughbek Mirzo, the eldest son of Shahrukh Mirza - lands from Tashkent, Sayram, Avliyoota, Ashkar to the Chinese border. Shahrukh gave the second ulus to Ibrahim Mirza, the second son of Shahrukh Mirza - Ferghana, Kashkar and Khojand.
However, Amir Temur was well aware that the Mongol begs would not easily obey the rulers. Therefore, while delaying the march to China, he subjugated the Mongol begs along the way, gave these tribes to his grandsons, and then planned to march to China. Thus, on November 1404, 27, he left Samarkand and headed towards O'tror. He came to Aksulot region and stayed there for 28 days. Amir Temur had sent most of his begs and amirs to Shahrukhiya, Tashkent and Sayram for wintering. Only Amir Sheikh Nuriddin, Amir Shahmalik and Amir Khoja Yusuf remained in the residence of the ruler.
Also, a large military unit, considered the right wing of the large army, was still wintering in Tashkent, Shahrukhiya and Sayram. This military unit was headed by Khalil Sultan Mirza, one of Temur's grandsons (Mironshah's son). The left wing (Juvongir) of the army was wintering in the cities of Turkestan and Sabron. This army was born from Temur's daughter Agha Begum Sultan Husayn Mirza was the leader of his grandson, and the central army was in Aksulot under the leadership of Timur.
On December 1404, 25, Amir Temur set off from Aksulot, and on Wednesday, January 1405, 14, he arrived at O'tror. Amir Temur stayed in Otror for 35 days, and for some reasons, on Thursday, February 1405, 5, Amir Temur swore not to play backgammon and chess from now on.
The winter of 1404-1405 was extremely cold, and all crossings of Amudarya and Syrdarya were covered with ice. Although Amir Temur was old, he did not mind the hardships of the road and the cold, he looked mentally fresh and physically strong. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yadi, Amir Temur received the ambassador of the former khan of the Golden Horde in Otror, ​​Tokhtamysh Khan, and told the ambassador that "after the end of the Chinese war, he will march against the Golden Horde and return the throne to Tokhtamysh Khan." promises to give.
But soon Amir Temur's client developed an illness and his condition worsened day by day. Under the leadership of Maulana Fazlullah Tabrizi, a scholar of medical science, several doctors treated the ruler's patients in various ways. But the disease was getting worse day by day.
The information provided by the author of "Temurnoma" about the cause of Amir Temur's illness is noteworthy. "Sahibqiran Amir rushed to Temur's residence and reported that the Kalmyks had raised their heads. They ordered everyone to go to battle. Beks and emirs were advised not to set out due to the cold weather. It was the middle of winter at that time. Amir couldn't stand his enthusiasm and left the village. At that time, on Tuesday, the seventh of the month of Sha'ban, they killed the horde in the courtyard, they cut off the hair of the barber and killed him. Their condition became known to them, and within an hour they changed their colors and shades." The famous oriental scientist, academician VVBarthold expresses the opinion that "in any case, the direct cause of Temur's illness and death was that he ate more than the norm in order to warm the body against the cold." However, according to the information provided by historical sources, Temur was not very fond of tyranny and condemned those who resorted to tyranny, regardless of who they were. In our opinion, Amir Temur took May only as a medicinal medicine. After all, doctors of the East, including Ibn Sina, used several types of shara for treatment.
In our opinion, it is possible that Amir Temur's disease process has been going on for a long time. In the fall of 1404, after Amir Temur returned from a seven-year campaign, he held a great conference in Konigil. At this conference, according to Claviho's information, Temur's face showed signs of an illness similar to fatigue. In fact, the ruler who returned from a seven-year campaign did not rest for at least five months, and again hesitating for a new campaign, he set out against China. As a result, the hardships of the continuous road took a toll on the aging ruler, and finally, according to the information of the author of "Temurnoma", the disease emerged from the inside as a result of airing the head. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yadi, the author of "Zafarnoma", new symptoms of the disease began to appear every day. It is said that during his illness, only Sarai Mulk had the right to stand next to Amir Temur. The ruler did not even have the courage to stir, Saray Mulk was aware of his condition day and night. One night, the exhausted lady Saray Mulk fell asleep and went to bed, and immediately woke up with a shiver. Naturally, the lady immediately glances at the side where the ruler is lying. However, the ruler was not in the bed. Mrs. Saray Mulk got up and went to the guard standing outside and asked for the ruler. After bowing to the lady guard, he points with his hand towards the darkness. Mrs. Saray Mulk is walking in that direction, she sees a black body standing on a small hill. It was Amir Temur, a world lover. He was staring into the darkness, his cloak over his shoulder, deep in thought. Mrs. Saray Mulk was excited: "What is this, great emir!?" What's the point of standing here with your illness in the bitter winter, the bitter night?" - he starts Amir towards the camp. When Temur came to the camp and lay down in his place, Saray Mulk asked again the secret of this unnatural condition. After sighing, Amir Temur tells about the dream he saw last night:
I was driving my horse along a highway bordered on both sides by tall reeds. Suddenly the reeds on the side of the road rustled. I looked in that direction. I pulled the horse's reins and stopped in shock. My father was hurrying out of the reed field. I got off my horse in amazement and started walking towards my father's perspective. But my father, the thief, was coming out in a hurry. I got off my horse in amazement and started walking towards my father's perspective. But my father did not pay me any respect, they passed in front of me, took off the saddles and bridles of my horse, entered the way they came, i.e. among the reeds, and disappeared from sight. I'm confused about l. I woke up standing next to a naked horse... When I woke up, my body was shivering and getting hot. I don't even realize I've stepped out of this uncharacteristic nightmare... In any case, it seems the pot is full...
- Have a good intention, great amir, pain is different, life is different, thank you, your health is good! - Ms. Saray Mulk was consoling her with tears in her eyes.
- It's no use crying, lady! Fate cannot be changed... Thankfully, the morning has begun to shine. Order the guard to let Amir Sheikh Nuriddin, Amir Shahmalik and Amir Khoja Yusuf come to me in the morning!
When the amirs and beks entered the host's residence, he was lying in bed. When Lady Sarai Mulk approached the ruler and whispered quietly about the visit of the emirs, he gently opened his lightless eyes and allowed them to come and sit closer. After the emirs briefly inquired about the situation, they would take a place at the feet of the ruler - on the racetrack, and with their whole bodies turned into ears, they would kill them looking at the ground. The ruler slowly opened his eyes, looked at the emirs and beks one by one, and began to speak with panting breath:
- Just so you know, I am appointing Jahangir Mirza's son Pir Muhammad Mirzo as the crown prince, so that the Samarkand throne and the arch of the state will be under his rule! Let him see useful measures for the peace of the country and the nation, the perfection of the potential of the army, and the peace of the raiyat. Therefore, you should pledge your allegiance to him in terms of obedience and respect, and help him in managing the kingdom, for the peace of the country, and for the peace of the Muslims. For example, let your deeds of unity and alliance be seen by friends and enemies far and wide, so that there will be no room for mutual disputes and no one will have the courage to rebel against the kingdom. Otherwise, mutual disputes will arise, worries and grievances will increase for the raiyat, and the prosperity of the country will end. And so, my years of effort have gone to waste...
Amir Temur got tired and closed his eyes. This was his last will and testament.
After the emirs, begs and elders of the country, as well as the princes and princesses present here, have sworn to fulfill the will of the ruler perfectly, the emir Sheikh Nuriddin begins to speak softly.
- If the command comes, we will send a message to Tashkent, Samarkand and Herat, so that your beloved children - the princes, will arrive together immediately, enjoy the good graces of their majesties, listen to your precious advice with sincere ears, and tie the belt of obedience around their waists. it would be useless.
Amir Temur slowly opened his eyes and looked at the amirs with a sad look, raised his left hand, first pointed with his index finger, then with his middle finger, then lowered his hand, closes his eyes. The amirs, unable to understand the ruler's gesture, were confused, and all of them looked questioningly at Mrs. Saray Mulk. At the same time, the ruler was stunned, opened his eyes and looked at the emirs:
- Time is running out, one or two days left. Unfortunately, it was not possible to see them. "Now it's time to see you again," he closed his eyes.
In fact, on the night of Wednesday, February 17, 807 (1405 Sha'ban 18), the world-famous commander-in-chief Amir Temur Kuragon passed away. Amir Temur's death was kept a secret from everyone, and he was sent to Samaqand at night in a specially decorated carriage under the leadership of Amir Khoja Yusuf. After that, the emir and the begs decided to hold a military council and send a message to all the princes far and near, so that the enemies of the sultanate would not stand up, enter the path of provocation and corruption, and temporarily hide the death of the master. they do.
However, a message is sent to Khalil Sultan Mirho, who is in Tashkent and Sayram, detailing what happened. They also send a message to Sultan Husayn Mirza, who is in Turkestan and Sabron. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, they send Hizr Kavchin with a letter to Pir Muhammad Mirza, who is in Ghazna. In the letter, it is stated that according to the owner's will before his death, Pir Muhammad Mirza should quickly arrive in Samarkand and put the kingdom under his control. A message will also be sent to Shahrukh Mirza in Herat, Mironshah Mirza in Baghdad, Umar Mirza in Tabriz, and other princes in Persia and Iraq.
However, no matter how much Amir Temur's death was kept a secret, the very next day this news spread far and wide with lightning speed. There is confusion among the army. Khalil Sultan Mirza, the head of the army stationed in the villages of Tashkent and Sayram, rushes to Samarkand with the army under his command after receiving the news about the death of his grandfather. Sultan Husayn Mirza, who was stationed in Turkestan and Sayram, took a thousand reliable soldiers from the army under his control and headed towards Samarkand in order to seize the throne immediately. Even before the body of the host has cooled, chaos begins among the Timurid princes, military chiefs and archons of the state. The Timurid princes, who swore to be faithful to the wills of their masters, soon turned their backs on the wills and began to fight for the throne, while the military and administrative leaders escalated factionalism. The Timurid princes could not unite as well as the desert Genghis princes in managing the Moorish kingdom. On the contrary, they started bloody conflicts, turned the country into a battlefield, and caused the country to fall apart, subjecting the working people to severe hardships.
After the body of Amir Temur was sent to Samarkand, a day later the queens were allowed to return to Samarkand. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, Amir Khoja Yusuf will bring the body of Sahibqiran to Samarkand on February 23, and the same night he will be buried in the house of Muhammad Sultan Mirza. When the princesses arrived in Samarkand, the news of Amir Temur's death had spread far and wide.
The governor of Samarkand, Arghunshah, closes the gates of the city and announces that no one will be allowed into the city until the real crown prince arrives and the throne issue is resolved. Only at the end of continuous negotiations, some princesses and young princes will be allowed to enter the city under the leadership of Sarai Mulk. Princesses, princes and wives of city officials go to Muhammad Sultan Mirza's house and begin the mourning ceremony. They dress in blue, spread their hair, scratch their faces and bleed, apply black ink, cry and mourn. Princes, nobles in the city, even Shaykhulislam Abdul Avwal and Isomiddin take an active part in this ceremony. All stalls and shops in the city will be closed.
On Monday, March 1405, 18, Khalil Sultan Mirza entered Samarkand without any opposition and sat on the throne. According to Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, the chiefs of the city of Samarkand, Arghunshah and Amir Khoja Yusuf, who returned from Otror, ​​negotiated with Khalil Sultan Mirza and handed over the city key to him. Two days later, Khalil Sultan Mirza went to the house of Muhammad Sultan Mirza and performed the mourning ceremony in a more grand and solemn manner. Not only the princes, princesses and archons of the state, but the whole city people take part in the ceremony. During the ceremony, the Holy Quran was recited to the soul of Amir Temur, donations were distributed to the widows, horses, oxen and sheep were slaughtered for several days, and food was served to the citizen. At the end of the ceremony, with tears, Amir Temur's special war drum is brought into the middle and played for a moment, after which it is cut into pieces so that it will not serve anyone else. This udum was considered the completion of the mourning ceremony.
According to Ibn Arabshah, the master's body was buried in the dahma of the Muhammad Sultan madrasa, and Temur's clothes and weapons were hung on the walls of the dahma. These items were decorated with precious stones and gold, and the smallest piece of these minerals was equal to one year's hiroj of a province. Inside the mausoleum, large gold lamps were placed, one of which weighed 4000 shekels. The mausoleum was covered with silk carpets. The owner's body was buried in a steel coffin made by a master craftsman from Shiraz.
Four years later, in May 1409, when Amir Temur's fourth son, Shahrukh Mirza Khalil Sultan, took the Samarkand throne from Mirza, Muhammad Sultan came to the house and visited his father Amir Temur's grave. Shahrukh Mirza, a strict follower of Sharia rules, forbids activities and rituals in the mausoleum that contradict the laws of Sharia, including returning Amir Temur's clothes, weapons and all valuable ornaments to the treasury. Also, he moved the bodies of Amir Temur and Muhammad Sultan Mirza from the madrasa house, placed them in a wooden coffin instead of a steel coffin, and buried them in the current Gori Amir mausoleum. It is assumed that it is more in accordance with Sharia law to bury the bodies instead of steel coffins in wooden coffins. A. Yu. Yakubovsky. However, moving and reburying the bodies of Shahrukh Mirza caused a lot of commotion in the state of Samarkand. Dissatisfaction will increase especially among the military leaders. That is probably why, writes Academician VVBartold, - the governor of Temur's religious leader Syed Baraka brought it from Andkhoi and buried it on the side of Amir Temur's head. It was already known that Syed Baraka had a great reputation as the religious leader of Temur. It seems that Temur during his lifetime bequeathed to be buried next to Syed Baraka.
In fact, in 1941, when the graves of Temur and his grandson Muhammad Sultan Mirza were opened and examined in the Gori Amir mausoleum, it was found that both bodies were buried in a coffin made of juniper wood. Also, in the opinion of the famous orientalist AASemenov and archaeologist VAShishkin, both coffins were made of the same wood, and the cloth inside the coffin was the same, that is, a piece of cloth.
According to the historical sources, when Amir Temur died, four of his wives - Mrs. Saray Mulk, Mrs. Tuman Ago, Mrs. Tukal and Mrs. Ruh Parvar Ago - were still alive. Also, according to the information provided by Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi and Fasih Khawafi, at the time of Amir Temur's death, he had 2 sons, 19 grandsons and 15 great-grandsons, a total of 26 princes. In addition to these, the owner had a grandson named Sultan Husayn Mirza, a son born to the youngest daughter - Sultan Bakht Beg and the eldest daughter - Ago Beg.
According to historical data, the owner Amir Temur was married eighteen times. In addition, he married 22 special concubines to his shabistan. According to the owner's own admission, in 1355, his father, emir Muhammad Taragai, married him for the first time to the daughter of emir Joku Barlos. In the same year, Amir Temur also married Oljaoy Turkon Ogho, the grandson of Amir Kazaghan, sister of Amir Husayn. According to the author of "Temurnoma", the original name of O'ljaoi Turkon Ago was Kamolai, he always rode a horse in men's clothes, took part in battles, and returned from the battle with a lot of booty. That's why they called him Oljaoy Turkon. In 1366, Oljaoy Turkon fell ill and died.
At the time when Sahibgiron Amir Temur sat on the throne of Samarkand (1369-1370), he had two sons and two daughters from these wives. Both princes, Jahangir Mirza and Umar Sheikh Mirza, were born in the same year - 1356. So, the princes were born from different mothers.
According to the information provided by the historian Khondamir, Jahangir Mirza's mother's name was Turmush Agha. If this is followed, the name of the owner's first wife - the daughter of Emir Joku Barlos, was Turmush Agha, from whom Jahangir Mirza and Ogi Begilar were born. Sultan Bakht Beg was born to the owner's second wife, Oljaoy Turkon Agha.

Leave a comment