Amir Temur Course Work


 Subject: Amir temur
The main part.
The stage of Uzbek statehood led by Amir Temur and its place in world history.
The development of science in the country led by Amir Temur is on a Central Asian scale.
Amir Temur and issues of state administration and legislation during the Timurid period.
"Personally, every time I read Temur's rules, I feel as if I have found some kind of spiritual strength. In my career, I repeatedly referred to this book, and I was convinced many times how vital the wise thoughts in it, which never get old, are food for human spirituality even today. For example, it is clear to all of us that the words "I have seen in my experience, one person who is determined, enterprising, alert, brave and ambitious is better than a thousand people who are inactive and careless."
  1. A. Karimov
         President of Uzbekistan IA Karimov spoke about the importance of spirituality for an individual and society: "Spirituality is the strength of a person, people, society, and state."[1] - he said. Based on this scientific criterion, the greatness of the son of Sahibgiron Amir Temur bin Muhammad Tarag'i Bahadirkhan is based on his spiritual potential based on secular and Islamic values. These qualities of the perfect breed are thoroughly justified in the works, articles and speeches of the President of Uzbekistan I. Karimov, in the official documents of our country dedicated to Amir Temur, and in scientific literature. For the first time in the sources, he was called "one of the great figures in the history of the world, a great statesman who made a great contribution to the economic, political and spiritual development of the peoples of Central Asia, and a great patron of science and culture."[2] Amir Temur's personality and work were respected at a high state level.
         However, during the years of the totalitarian Soviet state, the history of our national values ​​was falsified, as was the case with the entire cultural and spiritual life. For example, Amir Temur, our compatriot, great statesman, commander, great intellect, who played an important role in the socio-economic, cultural and spiritual life of the people of Turkestan, told his answer to the generations. Therefore, it is a duty for us generations, the children of the nation, to thoroughly understand the history of our national values, to remember the souls of our ancestors, to tell the truth about the cultural and spiritual heritage they left behind. A person with historical memory is a willful person. Because history is the basis of people's spirituality.
         A person with a great sense of purpose is always able to limit his personal needs and implement activities of great importance to the society in the interest of the common good. Owner Amir Temur was such an oriental, Islamic intelligent, great spiritual person.
Amir Temur's spirituality is embodied in a mixture of Omaniness, clarity and worldly, Islamic values. Amir Temur's spiritual maturity was laid in his youth and adolescence. One of the reasons why his spirituality has become an increasingly powerful social factor is that, for more than ten years before coming to power, he boldly pursued the great goal of clearing Turkestan from foreign invaders and foreigners and uniting all complex small estates into a single center. During these years, Amir Temur faced a number of complicated military and political situations. However, he never retreated from his goal.
Amir Temur's social activity, personality, even his spirit and character were disrespected. He was accused of illiteracy, ignorance, aggression. Even now, when the pure-hearted humanity is celebrating the 672nd anniversary of the birth of the Holy Qur'an, one of the news media of that old center is speaking malicious thoughts against Amir Temur. However, there is a truth that has been passed down from time to time. Boston, the life of slander is short. Time always passes events, ideas, activities of historical figures through a social "sieve". Then only those who stand the test of time will survive. Our forefathers, Amir Temur bin Muhammad Taragai Bahadirkhan, the thief, came to independence after successfully passing through great tests both in life and in life, even the repressions of the totalitarian red ideology. Not only generations, but also great compatriots like Amir Temur are enjoying the conditions of Uzbekistan's independence. Therefore, the spirituality of independence not only illuminated our future path, but also cleared our past from the complexity of various malicious ideas and ideologies. If we say based on objective logic and legality, the owner Amir Temur does not need any praises and stories. They don't even bother to throw stones at Bokhtonu. He cannot "frighten" or "kill" the Great One. Because that person never "die" in his lifetime, he is loyal and selfish, far and near. In such cases, his wisdom, thinking, strength, and sincere belief in Islam prevailed in his observation, not negative poles. Amir Temur did not inherit the kingdom. He was victorious in a long and uneven struggle with unequaled forces, relying on his clever thinking and wise observation.
Amir Temur's spiritual potential became more mature in the work of restoring the ancient, economic, and cultural fame of Movaraunnahr, defining its internal and external policy, and was fully manifested in social life. That is why all aspects of the country's social life: the state administration system, economic, financial, farming, crafts, trade, culture, science, military, international relations, Islamic religion, Sharia ropes have developed appropriately and proportionately.
Amir Temur, in the management of the state, activated its domestic and foreign policy, acted and passed judgments based on the masses of the people, officials, scholars, Islamic leaders, faith, thinking, books and, in the last measure, the sword.
The power of the spiritual potential of Amir Temur, the founder and leader of the independent, powerful state of Turkestan, in the activities of economic, financial, economic, political, military and legal interstate relations, in his attitude to science, culture, literature, art, memory, has a colorful content and many It is clearly visible.
The fact that Amir Temur was the owner of a great spiritual potential, he was extremely humble and humorless, he was modest in his Asianness and sharp in his words, and he was very chaste towards Muslims and princesses, and he unknowingly allowed himself to be forgiving of his minor and minor opponents. He openly confessed his mistakes in front of many people, he showed special respect to people of every rank and position, and even his royal anger was based on justice and truth.
During their lifetime, the founders built many cities, mosques, madrasas, mausoleums, houses, castles, gardens, irrigation facilities, smooth roads, bridges. He invited some of them to be named after their sons and grandsons, palace queens, Islamic leaders. However, none of the buildings he built was named after Amir Temur. The owners themselves did not express their desire for this.
Amir Temur united the territories from the borders of China to the lands of eastern Rum and Egypt into a single state under the banner of Islam. However, none of these regions were treated like mine, a foreign place.
At the invitation of the owner, construction and beautification activities in all the far and near regions of the country have intensified. Appropriate funds were allocated to them, officials were appointed.
The President of Uzbekistan IA spoke about the scientific and educational importance of Islam: "We are an Eastern country, a Muslim country. According to some, being a Muslim country is a sign of backwardness and lameness. I also cannot agree with this opinion. Since we are a Muslim country, we should not be embarrassed, on the contrary, we should always be proud. Because the thousand-year-old philosophy and Islamic values ​​of the East are a priceless treasure for development.[3], - expressed his fair opinion. If we observe based on this criterion of truth, the Islamic values ​​of Amir Temur's spirituality stand. The Islamic foundations of Amir Timur's spirituality were formed and decided on the basis of his devotion to Allah, Rasulullah, metaphorical and real prophets in the content of Quran, Hadith Sharif, as well as mabhid, tafsir, fiqh, mysticism. It was further strengthened based on the requirements of the Naqshbandiyya doctrine. It has a vital meaning. That is why Amir Temur sincerely believed in the religion of Islam during his entire conscious life, and fulfilled all their obligatory and sunnah requirements with piety. He treated the leaders of Islam with sincerity, sayyids, sheikhs, and hojas. Throughout his life, Amir Temur protected the religion of Islam from evils such as superstition, heresy, bigotry, ignorance and bigotry.
Amir Temur considered the great pioneers of Sufism, Khwaja Abdukholiq G`iduviani, Ahmad Yassavi, Ali Hakim al-Tirmizi, who lived in Movaraunnahr and Khurasan, to be his figurative ancestors and paid tribute to their souls. In the cities of Shahrisabz, Termiz, Yassa, he built mausoleums over the graves of Khoja Ali Hakim al-Tirmizi, Sayyid Amir Kulol, Khoja Ahmed Yassavi. Amir Temur's faith, loyalty to Islamic spirituality and the fact that he received powerful strength from it can be given many more examples. If Khoja Bahauddin Naqshband cleaned and reformed the teachings of Islam from any destructive vices, Amir Temur protected and promoted it, put an end to territorial divisions and mutual conflicts by dividing into religious factions. For example, as noted by the famous historian, philosopher, jurisprudence scientist Sayyid Sharif Jurjani, in the 80s of the 80th century, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Syria were divided into small states, and mutual contradictions flared up. In such a situation, Amir Temur followed the teachings of his spiritual elders and fought for the unity of the Islamic religion. He accepted this task as the order of God Almighty. Amir Temur's spiritual elders Zahiriddin Abu Bakr Taybonkhi, Sayyid Bakara, Sharif Jurjani supported him knowing that these activities were the will of God. Thus, in the 90s and XNUMXs of the XNUMXth century, Amir Temur appeared in the East as a defender of Islam and a writer.
The qualities of religious tolerance were perfected in Amir Temur. UGayridin showed humility and kindness to people. The fact that he corresponded with the heads of countries like France, Spain, England, Italy, and China, and that he received the country's ambassadors, representatives of Catholic, Buddhist, and shamanic religions in his presence, is a confirmation of our opinion.
In the spirituality and politics of Amir Temur, it was not uncommon to demarcate Islamic sciences from secular sciences, and to put one or two of them higher and lower. Because the Sahibqiran themselves, along with being pious, were well versed in divine and worldly sciences such as tafsir monotheism, hadith, jurisprudence, history, philosophy, calamity, and medicine. Famous scholars of the XNUMXth century, Abdurazzaq, Samarkandi, Hafizi Abru, Ibn Arabshah, Alisher Navayi, have written down specific information in this regard. That is why Amir Temur specially patronized and guided the development of science, culture, literature, art, memory in Movarunnahr. He created favorable conditions for all scientists and fuzalo to be productive. They organized meetings and discussions with them.
On the eve of the 18th anniversary of the independence of Uzbekistan and the 674th anniversary of the birth of Amir Temur, we would like to emphasize with national pride that in every era, spirituality rises on the basis of material blessings. But later, spirituality goes beyond the scope of the property of one people, one region and turns into a universal human value, a world civilization. Consequently, Amir Temur went beyond the limits of serving a people with spiritual potential and became a universal social factor. It is an ever-living and eternal spirituality. "Since there is a great figure like Amir Temur Temur in our history, his legacy and Pandu teachings are in harmony with our current life and help us to solve the problems facing us today, we have the right not to study, categorize, or promote this legacy. ``... Amir Temur is our pride, our honor is our pride.'' Now a few words about Amir Temur and the science and culture of the Timurid period. Above, we mentioned how talented Sahibqiran was. There is a saying that "a jeweler knows the value of gold". A person who has great potential in a number of sciences (history, sharia, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, memorization) and on top of that, if he is a king, the supreme ruler of a huge kingdom, he naturally looks at science and culture, scientists and artists with great respect. uses all possibilities. In addition, Amir Temur well understood that the development and future of any society and state cannot be imagined without the development of science and culture. Also, he correctly understood the need for the owners of talents to be in need of and deserve special permanent attention, to protect the creations of those with unique abilities, and to ensure their lives. He kept in mind that scientists and virtues are more confused about the modern state of society and state development in relation to their professions and worldviews than other social classes, and through this they acquire relevant experience and departments. For this reason, no matter which country and city of the world he went to, he did not do the work of gathering scholars and virtues together and talking with them for a long time, listening to their opinions and discussing.
The stage of Uzbek statehood led by Amir Temur and its place in world history.
         Independence gives us an opportunity to objectively and scientifically study our rich and unique past, historical and material heritage. The ideology of the former Shura forced us to interpret many of the difficult problems of the history of our nation and our country within the framework of its demands, lagging behind the historical reality, on the basis of the ideas of our great state king.
One of such unscientific interpretations is the problem of the history of Uzbek statehood. After independence, in a situation where our national statehood is being formed, this issue is of great scientific-theoretical and practical importance.
"The theoretical paths of researching the problem of the history of Uzbek statehood were expressed in the works, essays and speeches of I. Karimov. The president became the initiator of the scientific change, taking into account the history, current state, and future of Uzbek statehood."[4] It was a case of national and state importance.
Scientific conclusions of the President show that the history of statehood should be considered as a whole process. The stage of our statehood led by Amir Temur, which is a stage of this 2700-year history, stands out. Until this stage, Uzbek statehood had a history of more than two thousand years. The entrepreneur studied the advanced aspects of the stages of statehood, used them and creatively developed them.
The greatest service of Sahibqiran to history is that he first built a powerful state. IA Karimov said, "His views on the invitation are not only for his time, but also for the next generation."
Many works have been created about Amir Temur's life and activities, the kingdom he founded. Historians, political scientists, historians, experts in the field of journalism and others have written volumes and volumes of books due to the strong interest in the personality and activities of our great ancestor.
During the past 600 years, the number of serious works created dedicated to Amir Temur is more than 500 in European languages ​​and about 900 in Eastern languages, the head of state noted with great satisfaction. In addition, it should be noted that hundreds of scientific and artistic works were created during the 660-year celebrations of the founder's birth and in the following years. Academician Rtveladze and prof. The Saidovs compiled a brief index of works created in European languages. According to the authors, more than 2 new works about Amir Temur and the Timurids were created in the next 300 years.
Most of the works written about Amir Temur are the treatises of Arab scholars. Badriddin al-Ayni (1405) in his "IQD al-Juman" Al-Qaldashanali (1418) "Subh al-Ashab" of al-Maqrizi (1442) "Khitab-al Sulak" Ibn Hazi Shuba (1448) "Adkh Dhail ala tarikh al-salam", Ibn Hajar al-Ashqalani (1372-1449) "Inbaa al-Gumr", "a message to the proud (people) about the (famous) boys of this time" Ibn Arabshah's "Ajaib ul-neaqdur fi Tarikhi Taymour" (1450) Abul Maosani Taghri gave (1411-1469) "Ajaib al-Manhal al-Safi, An-Nujum az Zahira" ("Shining Stars from the (History) of the Rulers of Egypt and Cairo") ( 1465-66), Ibn Doqmaq and other historians created many works containing some aspects of the master's activities. Unfortunately, most of them were in Arabic and some of them were in manuscript form, so they did not reach our readers.
"Among the Arab historians, Ibn Arabshah's works entitled "Amazing al-Maqdur fi history of Taimur", "Miracles of fate in the history of Timur" or "History of Amir Timur" have a special place.[5] This work was written in 1436-1437 and translated into French, Latin, English, Turkish, Uzbek and other languages. It was translated into Uzbek by Arabist philologist U. Uvatov. The fact that the work was written in a very complex language and elegant style made it difficult to translate it into different languages. The translator compared Ibn Arabshah's work with works written by local authors and explained the differences.
There are many manuscripts of the century, two copies copied during the author's lifetime, and there are other copies. The work is written in a very elegant and complex language in prose style. Translator Uvatov divides the work into 4 sections as a historical source.
One of the important sources about Timur is "Zafarnama" by Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi. Because he was a talented person, Shahrukh Mirza's younger son Mirza Ibrohis Sultan commissioned him to write a work about his grandfather Amir Temur, and he collected a lot of information for him. In this way, in 1425, a masterpiece in the Persian language "Zafarnama" was created. The work was translated into French (1713), English (1723), Italian and other languages.
Another important source about Amir Temur is Nizamiddin Shami's "Zafarnama". In 1402, the owner ordered Nizamiddin Shami to write his history, and the work was completed in 1402-1404. The work includes events from Temur's rise to power (1370) to 1404.
Many works have been created about Sahibqiran in Western Europe. In particular, the Italian merchant Emmanuel Piloti knew the Arabic language perfectly, and the information he collected about Amir Temur is still kept in the Venice archives.
Paola Zane, the consul of Venice in Damascus, also collected a lot of information about Timur, and a year before the conqueror took Damascus, he was recalled to Venice. His information has not been published.
"The Life of Temurlan" by the Italian merchant Beltramus de Mugnalli was published. He knew Arabic well. He was here when Amir Temur captured Damascus, then he observed the Sahibquran's battle against Bayazid in Ankara and wrote a work called "The Life of Temurlan or the Ruins of Damascus", in the West it is known as "The Life of Temurlan", the work was written in Latin in 1416. The work was translated into English by the American scholar Walter J. Fishel. In the play, Amir touched on Temur's personal qualities: "Temur was seen as a very handsome and handsome person. He was truthful, gentle, compassionate and extremely generous. "As he grew older, he began to feel nauseous, and his anger grew year by year," he writes.
Monk John Greenlaw Sultania, who saw Amir Temur and communicated directly with him, and even entrusted him to communicate with the king of France on behalf of his country. While in Paris, he wrote a work called "Memories of Timur and his court". It is published by a scientist named Monraville, who writes an introduction. H. Ismatullayev notes that the title of the work was given by the publication.
One of the important sources about Sahibqiran is the work of the tourist and ambassador González de Clovejo "Diaries of a trip to the Samarkand Temur Palace in 1403-1406".
D. Lagofet's work "On the mountains and plains of Bukhara" is of great importance in restoring the truth about Amir Temur. While thinking about Amir Temur, he said, "He conquered half the world. This man, whom European historians described as barbaric and ignorant, was actually not like that. "And we call it wild, not knowing much about the history of Asia, and not even interested in knowing it. How many ex! You will be pitied, man!' writes.[6]
He came to Bukhara as a dervish under the alias of Khoji Abdurashid and became imam in one of the mosques, and after returning to his country, Hungarian religious N. Vemberi, a professor of Eastern languages ​​and literature at the University of Pesht, records an interesting fact in his book "History of Bukhara or Movaraunnahr". He exposes various lies about the owners. "Those who put Timur on the same line as Chingiz and called him a barbarian, tyrant, robber are twice wrong."
American historian J. Woods' work "The rise of Timurid historiography" analyzes many works written about Amir Temur and Timurids, including the works of Nizamiddin Shami, Hafiz Abro' Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, M. Natanzi and others.
Productive scientific research and propaganda about Amir Temur and the Timurid era is being carried out especially in France. The "Association for the study of the history and culture of the Timurids and French-Uzbek cultural relations" was established here, and it was founded by Mrs. Frederic Beaupertuy Bressan. The president of the association is Lucien Keren. L. Keren came to Samarkand in 1961 and this incident made him fall in love with this country. Since 1989, its foundation publishes the magazine "Temuri". A lot of information about Amir Temur's life, activities and Timurids is published in this magazine. Lucien Keren himself wrote the historical novel "Amir Temur and the reign of Temur Khakhan" and the play "Amir Temur" consisting of 11 parts and 6 acts.
The 660th anniversary of the founder's birth was celebrated all over the world, including in the United States. A unique Amir Temur month was held in April and May 1996. Once a week, for those interested in learning the languages ​​of the peoples of Central Asia, he read about the life and work of Amir Temur, about his time. In particular, Professor Qavomiddin Barlos from Germany devoted to the editing of Claveho's "Diaries" the exposure of Washington University graduate student Kenley Butler to the topic "Amir Temur's tribe - Barlos".
Ivanini, the ex-tsar general of Russia, wrote the book "On the military arts and conquests of the Mongolian-Tatar and Central Asian peoples during the times of Genghis Khan and Amir Temur" in 1836-1845. By the 1870s, he reworked the book and prepared it for publication. But his health deteriorated and he died on September 1874, 27, and the book was published in St. Petersburg in 1875, and the long title of the work was shortened to "Two Great Leaders: Genghis Khan and Amir Temur".
Many books and articles have been written about our great grandfather Amir Temur by compatriots who went on pilgrimage as a result of the tyranny of the Shura, but were always interested in his history and fate. Unfortunately, it is not possible to offer all of them. The extent of this issue can be seen in the example of the work of our countryman Ahmad Zaki Walidi. Ahmad Zaki Walidy Tugan, a world-renowned orientalist and Turkic scholar, has also done a blessed work on Amir Temur's life and the activities of the kingdom he established. It is directly related to the issues of Amir Temur's life, work, and place in world history. In the author's work entitled "History of Usul", 18 sources related to the Timurid period are described from the point of view of historiography.
During the Soviet rule, stones were thrown at the person of Amir Temur. Thank you very much, the period of independence was an important stage in purifying the name of Amir Temur and studying the history of the kingdom ruled by him and drawing objective scientific conclusions. Thanks to independence, we were lucky to learn many aspects of the life of our great ancestor. It is commendable that I. Karimov was at the beginning of this process.
So, what is the reason for the great attention paid to the Amir Temur factor in our country?
As our head of state emphasized, this was necessary for the restoration of the sense of identity, which was tried to be erased from our minds during the years of tsarist Russia and Soviet colonialism. The owner who united the country in chaos: "We are Turan whose property is Turkestan. The words "We are the oldest and greatest of the nation - the head of the Turks" help to understand our identity.
Secondly, it is necessary to revive the history that was sought to raise national pride and national consciousness. "And Amir Temur is the great peak of this old history."
It was during the period of independence that the works devoted to the history of the state led by Amir Temur, whose Uzbek statehood was an important stage, were published. Historian Azamat Zia's work "History of Uzbek statehood" is an important step on this noble path. The 5th chapter of the book is called "Uzbek statehood in the time of Amir Temur and the Timurids" and it analyzes the situation in Movaraunnahr during the time of Sahibqiran's coming to power, Amir Temur's coming to power and his struggle to strengthen the security of his country's borders.
More detailed information about the state ruled by Amir Temur is given in the fundamental work entitled "History of Timur and Ulugbek Era" prepared by the FA History Institute of Uzbekistan. Part I of this three-part study analyzes the main sources for the study of the history of Amir Temur and his time.
The work "Amir Temur World History", which reflects the spirit of the materials about the 660-year celebration of the founder's birth, about the personality of Amir Temur and the country he ruled, stands out. The introduction to the book was written by Federico Mayor, who was the general director of UNESCO at that time, and the foreword by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I. Karimov. "Humanity - writes I. Karimov - properly evaluates individuals who are of decisive importance in world development." Foreign authors Liu Bazin, F. Bressan, Lucien Keren and others took part in the writing of the work along with Uzbek historians.
The book consists of an introduction, part II and an appendix. In the introduction, the introduction of Mayor of UNESCO, the introduction of I. Karimov and his speeches at the opening of the exhibition in Paris and the opening ceremony of the statue of Amir Temur in Tashkent, the law on the establishment of the Order of "Amir Temur" and the law of the Government of Uzbekistan on the Timurids documents such as the decision to establish a state museum of history.
The issue of Sahibqiran and the state he founded is still in the attention of the scientific community, because as I. Karimov pointed out: "Since there is a great figure like Amir Temur in our history, his legacy and Pandu teachings are in sync with our day, without studying this legacy , we have no right without tariffing and promotion".
The works about Sohibqiran and the state he ruled allow us to study our history in the 1996th-660th centuries in depth and comprehensively. It introduces the current and future generations to the life and activities of our great grandfather, and makes it possible to enjoy his ideas. Amir Temur is a person who rendered incomparable service in the history of our country and the development of Uzbek statehood. Amir Temur is a bright figure recognized as a great statesman and a famous leader in the history of world nations. Unfortunately, the name of Amir Temur was condemned during the era of former colonialism and autocracy, and was pushed aside from the eyes of generations. However, the time has passed to hide the historical service of Amir Temur, who restored the Uzbek statehood, raised it to the level of a great state, and spread fame to the world, from the eyes of the world public, and to keep him in the chain of repression. Thanks to the national independence, we were fortunate to restore the name and the bright image of our grandfather Amir Temur while objectively covering our mother's history and establishing the historical truth. The declaration of XNUMX as the year of Amir Temur by the initiative of our country's president Islam Karimov and the wide celebration of the XNUMXth anniversary of our great grandfather's birth this year in our country and on the initiative of UNESCO on a global scale - this is a tribute of the present grateful generations, as well as the people of the world, to this great breed, his greatness. It is a symbol of his infinite respect and honor for his work. Personal qualities of Amir Temur Enlightenment, Leadership, Wisdom, Loyalty, Justice, Forgiveness, Compassion, Nobility, Courage, Valor, Perseverance, Willpower, Courage, Constancy, Temperance, Endurance, Patience, Honesty, Kindness, Benevolence[7].
With justice and fairness, I pleased God's created servants with me, having mercy on both the sinner and the innocent, and passed judgment on the truth. I won people's hearts with my charity work. Amir temur "Sahibqiran, who always thought about the grief of the people and the country, turned the country that was trampled under the feet of the enemies into the most powerful kingdom in the world. Come, dear friends, let's all unite and turn Uzbekistan into a great country that the world envies with our honest work, intelligence, and love for the Motherland. On this way, our grandfather said:Justice va freedom Let the wise teachings of "let your program be your leader" be our permanent mottosays I. Karimov
Amir Temur was born in 1336 in the village of Khoja Ilgor near Shahrisabz, the son of Muhammad Taragai, one of the elders of the Turkic barlos clan, and Takina Mohbegim, the daughter of an interpreter of Sharia laws of Bukhara. His full name is Sharif Sahibqiran Amir Temur ibn Amir Taragai ibn Amir Burkul. In the 60s of the 1346th century, when Timur entered the field of political struggle, the rule of the Mongols in the Chigatai ulus was continuing. In 1358, the khan of the Chigatai ulus was killed by the emir Qazagon Khan. In 10, the emir of Kazakhstan was also killed, and the process of chaos in the nation intensified. The separatist actions of about 1360 local factions claiming independence in different regions of the country, such as the Sufis in Khorezm, the Barlos in Kashkadarya, the Jaloirs in the Ahangaron Valley, the Sadrs in Bukhara, the emirs of Sayyids around Termiz, etc., are a serious threat to the integrity of the country. was giving birth. Ulus was divided into ten independent chiefdoms, and there were always disputes and quarrels between their chieftains. On top of that, the Mongol Khan Tughluq Temur1, who brought a large army to Movarounnahr in 1361 in order to strengthen his rule, also failed. In such a precarious situation, the young Temurbek, who is now on the field of political struggle, has to act with extreme caution and intelligence, gather patriotic and patriotic forces around him, and then, as soon as a favorable opportunity arises, strike a blow at the enemies of the country. had the task of giving. Temurbek defiantly used a unique tactic, without giving up his main goals, temporarily entered the service of Tughluq Temur in 1362 in order to gain time and find reliable power. However, after a year, the governor of Balkh became friends with Amir Husayn, who was from the Genghis family, and together with him began to restore the unity and freedom of the country. In 1364-1365, he attacked the Mongol troops several times. In the spring of 1, Tughluq Temur's son Ilyashoja marched to Movaroonnahr. Amir Temur and Amir Husayn in the "Battle of the Mud" near Chinoz, on the banks of the Syr Darya River. XNUMX The word here was formed as a result of the division of the Chigatai tribe. It is about the ruler of the khanate named after Mongolia.[8] the unexpected defeat of his army by the Mongolian army of Ilyashoja was a great lesson for Amir Temur. Ilyaskhoja's troops marched towards Samarkand. The local population, left without power (the governor of Samarkand had fled), rose to the defense, this movement is known as the movement of the generals. Samarkand became its center. The movement is led by Mavlonozada, a representative of knowledge, Abu Bakr Kalavi, an elder of wool-pickers, and Khordaki, a skilled sniper. About 10 residents gathered in the Jome mosque actively participate in the fight against the Mongols at the invitation of Mavlonozada. Ilyashoja suffered a major blow in Samaraqand and was forced to withdraw from Movaraunnahr. In Samaraqand, the power is transferred to the hands of the warlords. They take measures aimed at improving people's livelihood, land and property of those who support the Mongols are confiscated. Amir Husayn and Amir Temur, who learned about the victory of the Samarkand generals, came to Samarkand in the spring of 1366. With Amir Husain's trick, the leaders of the warlords were captured and killed. Mavlonozada survives only thanks to the efforts of Amir Temur. Amir Husain will rule in Movaraunnahr. Amir Husayn leaves Amir Temur in Movarounnahr and goes to Khurasan himself. Amir Temur's alliance with Amir Husain could not be strong during the next vigorous career. Emir Husayn, who is an ambitious and power-loving person by nature, will not hesitate to betray Amir Temur no matter what. As Sharofiddin Yazdi said, "loyalty and friendship between them was firmly established by closeness and kinship." But Amir Husayn's mind was not free from thoughts of cunning and cruelty.[9]
As it is said in our people, "If you dig a pit for someone else, you will fall yourself", so Amir Husayn also fell into the pit he dug himself. In the spring of 1370, Amir Temur took an army to Balkh, where Amir Husayn had settled, and destroyed it. After that, Amir Temur remained the sole ruler of Movarounnahr. Samarkand became the capital of the country. Amir Temur, who had now taken the reins of the country's management, still faced huge and complex tasks. Most importantly, it was necessary to solve the main task of uniting the country's territories and creating a unified centralized state. Without it, it would not be possible to promote the country's development and raise its status to the world level. Therefore, at first, the territories between Syrdarya and Amudarya were united diplomatically. Amir Temur marched towards East Turkestan at the end of 1370 and the beginning of 1371 to liberate the eastern regions from the influence of the Mongols. Fergana property and a number of other territories were taken over after the Mongol Khan Kepak Temur was dealt a crushing blow. Soon Shibirgan region in the north of Afghanistan was also taken under his control. Historical sources mention that Amir Temur made 7 military campaigns towards Mongolia. His long-term wars with Amir Qamariddin, one of the most powerful Mongol rulers, were aimed at freeing the eastern regions of the country from the Mongols, and establishing peace and tranquility in the country. During the years 1369-1370, Amir Temur lived and died with Qamariddin, who united the oasis of Kashgar, Issyk-Kul and Ettisuv under his control, and in 1389 overthrew Ilyaskhoja from the throne and became the Khan of Mongolia. fought battles. As a result of these battles, the main eastern territories belonging to Movarounnahr were included in its composition, which was of decisive importance in the creation of a centralized state in the territory of our country.
The founding of a powerful centralized state by Amir Temur 1361-1365 war against Khan of Mongolia Tughluq Temur and his son Ilyashhoja. In 1370, he marched against Amir Husain to Balkh and defeated him. In 1370-1371, Fergana, O'tror, ​​Yassi, Tashkent, Hisar, Badakhshan, Kunduz were subdued. In 1381, Herat, Seistan, Mazandaran, Sarakhs, Sabzavor were subdued. In 1371-1389, a total of 7 battles were waged against Amir Qamarid, the ruler of Mongolia, and the integration of the eastern and northern regions into the country in 1371, 1373, 1375, 1379, 1388. The wars against the Fiys and the incorporation of Khorezm into the country. The lands of Khorezm, given by Genghis Khan to the Joji clan, became independent from the Golden Horde, and the Kunghirat Sufis were at the top of the power. Later, it was divided into two, and the southern part was subordinated to the Chigatai tribe, but the Kungirot Sufis conquered the southern part as well. Amir Temur considered all Khorezm to be part of his ulus. Therefore, he marched several times to take Khorezm under his control. As a result of the last Khorezm campaign in 1388, the rule of Suleiman Sufi was overthrown, and this land was gradually included in the Timur kingdom. Thus, Amir Temur freed the country from the tyranny of the Mongols as a result of several years of bloody and bloodless struggles, important events, and successful use of diplomatic relations when the time came. Movarounnahr and Khurasan regions were united and managed to establish a single centralized state. Amir Temur organizes many military campaigns towards foreign countries since the 80s of the XNUMXth century in order to make his power known to the world and expand his territory while establishing a strong, centralized state. His "three-year" campaigns of 1386-1388, "five-year" campaigns of 1392-1396, and finally "seven-year" campaigns of 1398-1404 were aimed at the same goals. During these military campaigns, Iran, the regions behind the Caucasus, northern India, Syria, Iraq, and a large part of the Little Black Sea will be occupied. In this way, a powerful kingdom was created, and its influence covered the whole world. However, when the time comes, it should be noted that Sahibqiran's many international campaigns cannot be evaluated from only one sided point of view. protection from their abusers or as a last resort against foreign countries that have been constantly hostile to the country of Sahibqiran. In particular, Amir Temur's battles against Khan Tokhtamish of the Golden Horde several times (1389, 1391, 1394-1395) were aimed primarily at ensuring the peace of the country and its territorial integrity. In particular, Tokhtamish's claim to the lands of Khorezm was one of the important reasons for this.
Also, the life-and-death war between Sahibqiran's army and Turkish Sultan Bayazid's forces in 1402 near Ankara took place primarily because of Turkish sultan's stubbornness, arrogance, intolerance, and his refusal to demand justice. Amir Temur, who decided this fierce battle in his favor, had the opportunity to demonstrate his power not only in the East, but also in the West. After this great victory, it is clear that the influential countries of Western Europe, such as England, France, and Spain, and their rulers took an active approach to establish close contact, cooperation, especially trade relations with Amir Temur. is evidence. In fact, Amir Temur's foresight was demonstrated by his European rulers - King Charles VI of France (1380-1422), King Henry of England
IV (1399-1413), diplomatic with Henry III (1390-1407), King of Castile and Leon
it can also be known from his contacts and correspondence. Among other things, in his letter to the King of France, Charles VI, he offered to establish trade relations and expressed the opinion that "the world will prosper with the people of commerce." The King of France, in his reply written on June 1403, 15, indicated that he accepted the offer with pleasure. By this time, during the further increase in the fame of the Great Silk Road, Movarounnahr and Khorasan were closely connected with various countries of the world and became the most important center of international caravan trade, which had a great positive effect on the economic, cultural and spiritual development of our country. showed.
While creating a powerful kingdom, Amir Temur attached great importance to its efficient management and further improvement of the management system.
He further improved the system, procedures, and legal foundations of the Uzbek statehood, which were formed and developed during the era of the Somanids, Karakhanids, Ghaznavids, Seljuks, and Khorezmshahs, in accordance with the demands and needs of the new historical period, and gave them a new spirit, meaning, and polish.
Amir Temur, while consistently following the foundations of Uzbek statehood formed before him, made a significant contribution to their content enrichment. Amir Temur is all about the development of the foundations of national statehood and the development of society
he paid special attention to providing for the activities of social classes and their interests. Based on this, Amir Temur was the first in the history of the world to divide the 138 social structures of society into 12 classes, define the special position and interests of each of them, and the corresponding relations between the state and society.
During his time, the administration consisted of two offices, i.e. dargah and ministries
has been On top of the dargah stood the supreme ruler himself. The important issues of the country and the state were solved under his instructions, while Amir Temur established a powerful kingdom, expanded its territories to the east-west, north-south, and made his empire famous in the world by raising it from economic, cultural and spiritual aspects. , but after his death, the country went into decline. The main reason for this is that the lands and territories under Amir Temur's control were so diverse and spread over long distances that it was difficult to manage them from a single center for a long time. On top of that, it was natural that sooner or later the existing various opposition forces would work for their territorial independence.
One of the important reasons that led to the weakening and disintegration of the Sahibqiran kingdom is the fruitless war and conflicts between a large number of Timurid princes, which began to fight for the throne and lasted for several years. Because after the death of Amir Temur, many of his successors did not listen to his wise wills and teachings and began to fight for the central power.
When Amir Temur left for the Chinese campaign, he fell ill and died in O'tror on February 1405, 18. 4 of his 2 sons (Miron Shah va Shahrukh Mirzalar) and 19 grandchildren, 15 great-grandchildren, as well as daughters — My brother, Beg Sultan Bakht and the son of Agha Beg Sultan Husain Mirzawere left. According to Amir Temur's will, he was succeeded by his grandson, who ruled Kabul, Kandahar and North Indian lands. Pirmuhammad (son of Jahangir Mirza) was supposed to take over. However, Prince Halil Sultan (son of Mironshah) arbitrarily occupied Samarkand and declared himself as the ruler, which naturally led to the agitation of other princes and the division of the kingdom. As a result, soon a large part of the western regions became independent. Turkmens on the Azerbaijani side White collared va Black-headed the disobedience and resistance of the dynasties to Timur's kingdom increased. Amir Khudaidad va Sheikh Nuriddinand they rose up in different areas of Movarounnahr. Only the determined and courageous Shahrukh Mirza will put an end to these bloody conflicts and wars and will gain the reins of power in Khurasan and Movarunnahr. In 1409, he decided the situation in Movarounnahr in his favor and handed it over to his eldest son Ulugbek. He himself became the ruler of Khurasan (1407-1447).
Mirza Ulugbek's real name is Muhammad Taragai He was born in 1394 in Sultanate. His grandfather, Amir Temur, looked at him with great affection and brought him up from a young age. Ulug'bek (he was fondly called by this name in the family of Sahibgiron), who had great innate talent and intelligence, in addition to mastering state administration, mastered religious and worldly knowledge at a mature level. He was just 15 years old when he ascended the throne of Movarounnahr. The rule of Mirzo Ulug'bek (1409-1449) is a special period in the traditional development of the Timurid kingdom and important social changes. After all, thanks to the great efforts of the wise ruler and the rightly oriented policy, the country's inviolability, peace and tranquility were relatively ensured. This had a significant positive impact on its economic, cultural and spiritual development. According to the unanimous opinion of the historians of that time, Ulugbek tried to keep the management system and all the procedures of his grandfather's time in full. He also followed it in tax and financial policy. True, Ulugbek was not interested in battles like Amir Temur. He did not have too much incentive in this field. He went on military campaigns only when necessary. For example, in 1414, when the ruler of Ferghana, Prince Ahmed, tried to refuse to obey, he sent a large army, and with this campaign, he not only made Ahmed obey, but also managed to annex the lands of eastern Turkestan to his state. was. By 1425, Ulugbek Mirzo marched to Issyk-Kul, eliminated the local opposition forces that rebelled there, and managed to significantly strengthen the eastern borders of the country. However, in 1427, the ruler's campaign against Baraq Khan, one of the Dashti Kipchak nobles, who rose up with territorial claims in and around Sighnaq in the lower reaches of the Syrdarya, unexpectedly ended in failure for him. This defeat would lead Ulug'bek to be deprived of power. Only the arrival of his father Shahrukh with a large army allowed him to reassert his rule. After that, Ulugbek Mirzo focused more on dealing with the affairs of the country and its internal politics than on war efforts. For this reason, issues related to the improvement of the country, peace, well-being of the country, and the development of science occupy the main place in his work. Trade, crafts and agriculture in the country will continue to develop as before. Many artificial irrigation facilities will be built. The country actively participates in the international caravan trade through the Great Silk Road. In Samarkand, Bukhara, Shakhrisabz, Shosh and other cities, many luxurious madrasas, mosques, mausoleums, caravanserais are built. The unique architectural structure built under his direct leadership - the observatory embodied the latest achievements of science and technology of that time.
The monetary reform carried out by Ulugbek in 1428 was also an important event in establishing trade and money circulation and financial policy in the country. The coins of the new weight, issued by Ulugbek, played a special role in revitalizing economic life and developing trade with their value and value. During his time, the order of giving special privileges to representatives of the upper class, military commanders, and high priests prevailed, as before. In addition, large-scale waqf lands were also at the disposal of religious institutions, which are considered the great spiritual support of the state.
Among the various taxes paid by the population during the Timurid era, khiroj (land tax) stood out. At least one-third of the crops grown by the peasants were paid in taxes. In addition, tithe (one-tenth of the income), tamga (a tax on trade and artisans), zakat, tobacco tax, garden tax, ulaq (for civil servants), drug (military for shepherds), mirobona (for water suppliers), yasak (for livestock), begor (production at the expense of the state: for the construction of palaces, ditches, canals) and other taxes and duties were introduced.
No matter how much Ulugbek tried to conduct intelligent and consistent policies in his state policy, patronize scientists, religious leaders, encourage trade and crafts, there were many opposing forces against him.
When Ulugbek saw measures to limit the abuses of large landowners against ordinary citizens, they opposed the "scientist on the throne". Pro-ignorant elements among the clergy campaigned that Ulugbek was a "disloyal ruler" who harmed the Islamic religion. In this way, those who love ignorance opposed science, and those who put their interests above the interests of the people opposed progress. Ulugbek could not completely eliminate the internal conflicts between different socio-political groups in the country, opposition of bigoted and reactionary forces. By the end of the 40s of the 1447th century, Movarounnahr state was subject to instability and deep social upheavals. The fact that the country's army was not in a fighting condition and scattered in different places opened a wide way for the Dashti Kipchak settlers to often invade these lands and plunder the country. In particular, in connection with Shahrukh Mirza's death in XNUMX, Ulugbek marched to Khorasan claiming his father's throne, power struggle with his nephew Aloudovla and other heirs, in his absence Abulkhair Khan plundered the lands of Movorounnahr from the Dashti Kipchaks, and finally, black Due to the instigation of the forces, the conflict that started with his son Abdullatif turned into a big battle, and the defeat of Ulugbek not only ended with his tragic death, but at the same time further exacerbated the crisis of the Timurid dynasty. led to deepening. The Ulugbek Academy was disbanded, the books in the library were burned, and the scientists were forced to leave.
Soon after the death of Ulugbek, the white man Abdullatif was killed, after which he came to power in Samarkand. Abusaid Mirza (1451-1468)instead of managing the state, he spent most of his time on military campaigns in Iran and Khurasan, his descendants who ruled Movarounnahr after his death - Sultan Ahmad (1468-1493), Sultan Mahmud (1493-1494) and Sultan Ali Mirza (1494-1501) During this period, the country's further internal conflicts and decline ultimately led to the end of the rule of the Timurids. In the early 90s of the XNUMXth century, his son, who took the reins of power after the death of Umarshaikh Mirza in the Fergana estate, is ambitious and ambitious. Babur Mirza1 (1482-1530)Several years of fighting against Muhammad Shaibani Khan in order to restore and preserve the Timurid kingdom ended without results. This is the reason why Babur Mirza, whose great dreams turned into a mirage and whose body was filled with despair, had to leave for the lands of Afghanistan and India. After the death of Abusaid Mirza (1469), he came to power in Khorasan in the second half of the XNUMXth century. Hussein Boyqaro (1438-1506) During this period, many important changes and shifts took place in the socio-economic and cultural life of this country. The reason for this is that Husayn Boykara, who was a brave and enterprising, capable and enlightened ruler among the Timurid princes, was able to do great good deeds in Khorasan and raise the power of the kingdom during his almost 40-year reign. Alisher Navoi Hazratlari (1441-1501) played an incomparable role in these glorious works and efforts.
Great position and influence as the first minister in the Boykara palace of Ulug' Navoi
Having it, of course, helped to solve many important state issues rationally, in favor of the raiyat. The joint efforts of these two nobles were of decisive importance, especially in the realization of many beautification works in the capital Herat and its surroundings, in the construction of many beautiful architectural monuments and public economic facilities. . According to the historian Khondamir, the number of large constructions built during the time of Husayn Boygaro increased from 40. Dozens of beautiful mosques and madrassas built in Herat (including a huge mosque with 403 domes, 130 arches and 44 pillars), hospitals and baths, educational institutions, water facilities - these are evident from the great creative works of the Khurasan state. is a target. The construction of the Turukband reservoir in the Choshmagul region by the initiative of A. Navoi was of great importance in providing life to Mashhad and its surroundings. However, it is not surprising that during the period of Husayn Boygaro, the internal conflicts in Khurasan, the intrigues and corruption of the officials, the rise of betrayal, the origin of disputes between the young princes, and the carrying out of bribes, led to a crisis by the end of the XNUMXth century. Especially after the tragic death of Prince Momin Mirza, the beloved grandson of Husayn Boygaro, the conflicts between the king and his sons grew steadily, and there was no way to resolve them. Even the efforts of a great man like Alisher Navoi, who tried to put an end to the enmity between parents and children, brought them to compromise, and decided on the unity, peace and tranquility of the kingdom, were in vain. This was useful for the begs and emirs of Muhammad Shaibani Khan, who occupied the territories of Movarunnahr and kept an eye on the borders of Khurasan. At the beginning of the 1506th century, that is, after the death of Husayn Boykara (1), he began to march towards the lands of Khurasan. Babur is the grandson of Yunus Khan from the Khans of Mongolia on his mother's side, the son of Qutlugh Nigorkhanim. Shaibani Khan's army defeated the armies of Badiuzaman and Muzaffar Mirza one after the other and soon took the entire Khurasan land under their control. In the same place, we would like to bring to the attention of our dear students an instructive living picture built on a historical basis: It happened in 1497. Momin Mirza was imprisoned in the Ikhtiyoriddin fortress of Khirot in chains. He was reciting Surah Yasin of the Holy Qur'an. 4 executioners enter the room in the middle of the night, carrying the sealed decree of his grandfather Husayn Boygaro to strangle his grandson Mqmin Mirza (which was obtained by the conspirators of the head of Hadichabegim using the cunning of the king). Momin Mirza asks the amir to read his grandfather's decree and identify its seal. The executioners agree. The prince first rubs the decree on his eyes, kisses it, and then reads it, saying, "This decree with my grandfather's seal is a blessing for me." Among other things, the order contained such terrible lines: "Mohammed Mo'min Mirza should be dragged to the bowstring and sent to the dungeon of non-existence without putting him on trial." Mo'min Mirza behaved boldly and bravely and said to the executioners: "After your work is done, return my grandfather's order to them by tying it with a length of bow string.
Tell them that the reign of a king who cannot reconcile with his own generation and needs the services of an executioner will not last long. Grandpa, be careful! Al-kasosu minal haq! While saying these words, he took the shackle chain from the ground and turned it over his head, wounding two executioners, but the ratio of forces was not equal. The other two executioners knock him down and strangle him with a bowstring as ordered. In fact, in 1506, Husayn Baigaro's passing out, being buried as dead, falling into the grave, trying to get out, but not being able to get out - these are actually the visions of "Alqasosu minal-haq".
In this way, the rule of the Timurid dynasty, which lasted for almost one and a half centuries, brought glory to the name of our Motherland, took it to the heights of social development, and left an indelible mark in the history of our great ancestors, was condemned to destruction by the demands of history. However, this complex, conflicting historical process later served as an inexhaustible lesson and source of learning for the new generations in the path to the restoration of independence, to the heart of many vital issues.
  1. Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan - T.: "Uzbekistan" 2003
  2. Karimov IA Amir Temur - our pride is our pride - T.: "Uzbekistan" 1998
  3. Karimov IA National independence, economy, politics, ideology of Uzbekistan Volume 1 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 1996
  4. Karimov IA Let us have a free and prosperous homeland Volume 2 - T.: "Uzbekistan" 1996
  5. Karimov IAThe country is as sacred as a place of worship Volume 3 - T.: "Uzbekistan" 1996
  6. Karimov IA On the road to creativity Volume 4 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 1996
  7. Karimov IA new way of thinking and working - the need of the times Volume 5 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 1997
  8. Karimov IA On the way to security and sustainable development Volume 6 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 1998
  9. Karimov IA We build our future with our own hands Volume 7 - T.: "Uzbekistan" 1998
  10. Karimov IA A free and prosperous homeland, a free and prosperous life - we strive for prosperity Volume 8 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 2000
  11. Karimov IA Each of us is responsible for the development of the country Volume 9 "Uzbekistan" 2001
  12. Karimov IA The path we have chosen is the path of democratic development and cooperation with the enlightened world Volume 11 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 2003
  13. Karimov IA It is necessary to fight for security and peace Volume 10 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 2002
  14. Karimov IA Peace and poverty, our strength depends on our unity and strong will Volume 12 - Vol.: "Uzbekistan" 2004
  15. Karimov IA During the empire, we were considered second-class people -.: "Uzbekistan" NMZU 2005 p. 64
  16. Karimov IA Our main goal is to democratize and renew society, to modernize and reform the country -T.: "Uzbekistan" 2005, page 96.
  17. Karimov IA "The Uzbek people will never be dependent on anyone." - T.: "Uzbekistan" 2005, 160 pages.
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[1] Karimov IA Uzbekistan: national independence, economy, politics, ideology. Volume 1, Tohkent: Uzbekistan. 1996. Page 81.
[2] Look. The decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan to celebrate the 660th anniversary of the birth of Amir Temur. "Voice of Uzbekistan" 1995. January 1: Taking light from Istiklal. Responsible editor. Prof. M. Altinov Tashkent "Science" 2005.
[3] IA Karimov is on the road to creativity. Volume 4 T. "Uzbekistan" 1996. Page 90.
[4] Sharif Boltayev: The stage of Uzbek statehood under Amir Temur and its place in world history. Bukhara-2006 3 pages.
[5] Sharif Boltayev: The stage of Uzbek statehood under Amir Temur and its place in world history. Bukhara-2006 7 pages.
[6] Sharif Boltayev: The stage of Uzbek statehood under Amir Temur and its place in world history. Bukhara-2006 12 pages.
[7] Q. Usmanov, M. Sodikov, S. Burkhonova History of Uzbekistan. Textbook.-T.2005, 134 pages
[8] Q. Usmanov, M. Sodikov, S. Burkhanova History of Uzbekistan. Textbook.
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[9] Sh. Yazdi. "Zafarnoma", page 207

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