Essay on the holiday of Navruz


About the history of Navruz (History of Navruz) Navruz (Navruz) is one of the ancient holidays of the Persian-Tajik and Turkic peoples. This holiday is celebrated on March 21st, which coincides exactly when day and night are equal.  According to historical sources and our scholars, the period of formation of Navruz covered the centuries from the earliest times to the emergence of "Zoroastrianism". The word Navruz is derived from the Persian-Tajik language and means "New Day". From time immemorial, Navruz has been a favorite holiday of sincere people. In those days, even wars ceased, and anger was forgiven. The kings rewarded the most deserving of the people, and pardoned some of the prisoners. In the joyous moments of spring and the new holiday, which are important in every heart, the question "Where and when did Navruz originate?" It reads: “The land of Khorezm, the birthplace of the great scholars who gave the world its first alphabet and founded the secular sciences, was called Khvayrazam in ancient times, even in the millennium BC. Archaeological and ethnographic research in recent years has shown that Navruz was first celebrated in Parthia on the same land as Nisa (Parthia, the capital of the city of women) in the works of Greek and European philosophers. Examples of this are the "houses of fire" built in the Eagle Fortress, Jambok Fortress and Nisa Fortress, which have survived to this day. In the center of the Eagle Castle was a mausoleum with a blue dome. On the altar of the mausoleum was an emerald stone in the raised hand of Onaquti. On the first day of the lunar month, on March 22, according to our current calendar, sunlight from a hole in the dome of the mausoleum fell on the Emerald Stone in Onaquti's hand and set fire to the hearth of a cauldron ready to cook sumalak. In Firdavsi's Shahnama, the New Year's holiday is associated with the name of King Jamshid. In particular, Jamshid trains people for the good of the country, smelts iron and makes weapons, spins and weaves clothes, builds buildings, reveals medical secrets, builds ships and builds gardens. Eventually, "the fruit of his labors" will one day build a throne and ascend to heaven. According to this legend, Navruz was celebrated on the same day. Alisher Navoi in his work "Tarihi mulki ajam" ("History of Ajam kings") states that the great Navruz was invented at the end of Jamshid's great discoveries. Navoi writes: “Jamshid built the Chihil Minor, an incredibly tall building that no human has ever seen, and this building was completed, the world gathered greetings and news and celebrated. At that time, the sun was shining on the rabbi of the faith. He sat on the throne in the building, spread the word of justice and sound to the world, and celebrated Navruz. In fact, although it is difficult to say exactly when and how Navruz came into being, it can be said that this holiday was invented by wise people. This is because the birth of Navruz was associated with the profoundly scientifically based laws of the universe and nature, such as the entry of the Sun into the zodiac sign, the equinox, the lengthening of the day, and the beginning of revival in nature. This (in any society) was the basis for celebrating Navruz as a holiday of awakening, regardless of when the beginning of the year came. In addition, if we look at the deep roots of Navruz, it dates back to the most ancient times - the spring holidays, which were held in the fields after the transition of primitive people to farming before the start of the new working season. Navruz is one of the great values ​​that has come down to us from ancient times, an international holiday. It is steeped in the world of spirituality, from the mythological ideas of our ancient ancestors to the views of our contemporaries, and it always draws strength and energy from the achievements of human cultural development. There are various opinions about the origin of Navruz, the most vital and ancient holiday of the peoples of the East. Well-known scientist Hodi Zarif Navruz was right when he estimated the age of the universe to be at least three thousand years or even older. Narshakhi, a XNUMXth-century Bukhara scholar, wrote of the peasants' songs associated with the name Siyavush, which were sung on Navruz, and wrote: . Historical information about the emergence of spring and Labor Day has changed over time and has survived to this day. Many of these legends connect Navruz with the legendary Jamshid.  In ancient legends about Navruz, the emergence of this national holiday is associated with the traditions of our ancestors associated with the beginning of spring and spring field work. On the night of March 21-22, Navruz will begin with the ritual of "Kazan tola". Sumalak and halim were also cooked that night.      The pot of these dishes was opened the next day. Navruz is a national holiday that celebrates blessings. The boiling of sumalaks in Navruz is a sign of abundance, fertility of fields, and generosity of orchards. In one of the Kazakh folk songs dedicated to Ulus Day, ie Navruz: On Ulus Day, if the pot is full, there will be plenty of milk all year round, if you receive applause from the elders, you will die that year. It will be! A collection of folk songs, beliefs, children's games, myths and legends, rituals and customs related to the celebration of Navruz, sumalak, daisies, tulips. It will be of great practical importance in preserving the ancient traditions of Navruz. There are many intelligent people among our people who know the ancient songs, beliefs and customs associated with Navruz. Where is Navruz celebrated? This holiday has been widely celebrated among the Turkic and Persian-Tajik peoples since ancient times. Initially, the celebration of Navruz was a tradition among the settled peasants, and later through them it became a tradition of both semi-settled and nomadic Turkic peoples. Over the centuries, the celebrations of Navruz in different nations have adapted to their way of life and ideology. According to historical sources, the celebration of Navruz dates back to the Achaemenid period and is one of the largest holidays in Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan. After the introduction of Islam in these countries, the holiday of Navruz was banned, but the people continued to celebrate their favorite holiday. From the time when the peoples of Central Asia and Iran were liberated from the rule of the Arab Caliphate (9th-10th centuries), the celebration of Navruz became more official. Based on information from ancient books, Abulqasim Firdavsi in his work "Shohnoma" connects the appearance of Navruz with the name of the legendary king Jamshid. Information about Navruz can be found in Abu Rayhan Beruni's "Monuments of the Ancient People" and other works, and in Umar Khayyam's "Navruznama". Mahmud Kashgari's "Devonu lug'otit-turk" contains folk songs dedicated to Navruz. The Central Asian historian Abu Bakr al-Narshahi (899-959) wrote in his History of Bukhara that people slaughtered roosters at the tomb of Siyavush on the day of Navruz, and that more than three thousand years had passed. "History of Bukhara", T., 1966). There are other sources about the celebration of Navruz in Central Asia. Peoples living in the territory of Uzbekistan also welcomed this day as the beginning of the new year. Preparations began a few days ago. Wheat was harvested and sumalak was made from its grass, green chuchvara, mint somsa were cooked, folk games such as otchopar, ulak, kurash were held, and songs about spring were sung. On the first day of Navruz, children in rural areas sang songs dedicated to Navruz in front of their homes. The landlord treated them with gifts and food. The children shared some of the food with the village widows. This tradition is still preserved in some villages of Samarkand and Jizzakh regions. Navruz is not only a New Year's holiday, but also a labor holiday. According to the data, Navruz was a holiday in Central Asia long before the adoption of Islam. However, during the former Soviet regime (20a. Since the mid-80s) Navruz has been unjustifiably banned as a religious holiday and ritual. Today, after the independence of Uzbekistan and other Central Asian countries, Navruz, along with other values, has been revived. Now Navruz is celebrated in Uzbekistan as one of the national holidays, March 21 has been declared a public holiday. Every year on this day, festivities and concerts are organized in the alleys and squares of all regions of the country. For several days, the mahallas will hold events dedicated to Navruz, cooking sumalak, halim and other delicacies. On the days of Navruz, khokimiyats, mahalla activists, charitable organizations - children from orphanages, war and labor veterans, lonely elderly people visit them to congratulate them and give them presents. Navruz is celebrated in Uzbekistan on March 21 and is a holiday. day. Navruz is a holiday of prosperity, rejuvenation, the beginning of a new day associated with the awakening of nature. March 21 is widely celebrated by the peoples of the East as the day and night - the New Year, ie Navruz. It is the beginning of the planting season for the farmer. Our ancestors and grandparents celebrated this holiday with various, colorful rituals and ceremonies. In ancient times, during the days of Navruz, our ancestors moved to the winter resorts - from villages to summer camps and summer camps. Spring sowing has started in the fields. The peasants added to the land. They organized hashars in groups. The spirit of past ancestors is remembered. Fruit and ornamental trees were planted in large numbers. In the fields, in the summer, Navruz is a new year, a new life. Our ancestors sewed special clothes for Navruz and wore them to celebrate. Navruz cuisine was also unique. Among them, especially sumalak, halim preparation has become a tradition. The participation of children in this holiday was very active. They played various public holiday games during Navruz. These include horse games, chillak, puppetry, toshoyin, lapar say, and so on.
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