Babur's legacy in the eyes of world scholars


 Many scientific, historical and artistic works have been created about the attractive personality, energetic life and activity of Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, his human qualities, his contribution to world science and his descendants. In other words, our compatriot Bobur is also the most studied in world historiography. To date, in addition to Uzbek writers, the names of several dozen foreign authors who have written about Bobur are known. In particular, the book "Babur in India" by the British historian U. Erskin, published in "Cholpon" in 1995, the work of the Indian historian LPSharma "The Kingdom of the Baburis" published in Delhi in 1988, the American scholar SMBerk's "Akbarshah - the greatest of the Baburids" Manuscripts of contemporary historians, studies of Indian history, works by world-renowned scholars and translators of the twentieth century. His works describe the whole life of Bobur, his childhood, adolescence, youth, anxious days, dominance, religious and philosophical views, the way of governing the state, his attitude to culture and art.
In his short and succinct descriptions of the American researcher Berk Bobur, he managed to summarize the life of the great figure, his services in the history of statehood and the most important aspects of his personality. The author writes about Babur's policy of domination: However, even though there were plans to include the occupied territories, especially these lands, in their kingdom, the invading troops did not allow the looted property to be plundered. Thoughts about "Boburnoma" are also noteworthy: "I wrote the whole truth," says the author, and indeed does not hide from the reader his shortcomings, the wrong actions that led to failure.
Babur's life and work were also widely studied in France, and Bartoleme D'Erbelo (1621-1695), a French orientalist, was the first to inform French scholars about Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur and the Boburnoma. D'Erbelo, in his encyclopedia La Biblioteque Orientale (Paris, 1967) entitled "Bobur or Bobar", described Bobur's life, his state and leadership skills, and his interest in literature and art. provides information about.
By the XIX century, a new era began in Europe, especially in French oriental studies, in the study of Babur's legacy and the translation of his works. In the same years, French scholars created significant research in the translation of Bobur's great work "Boburnoma" into French, the study of its textual features, the assessment of its political and historical significance.
Henri Jules Claprot (1783-1835), an orientalist, was one of the first to translate and study the Boburnoma into French. In 1824, A. Klaprot's article "Observations on the history of Sultan Babur or" Boburnoma "" was published. Klaprot, who was well acquainted with the history, culture and literature of the peoples of Central Asia and Siberia, was the first in European Oriental studies to think fully about the "Boburnoma". Then, in 1854, in Paris, a large book was published, entitled "The lives of historical figures living in the present and in the past." The book also includes an article by orientalist M. Langle (1763-1824) entitled "Life and work of Zahiriddin Babur." The article provides more information about Babur than previous sources, from which the reader will be able to gain a deeper knowledge of the life and work of the writer. Bobur's life and work were of increasing interest to the French reader. In recent years, French scholars have frequently published articles and books about Babur.
The services of the French Turkologist Henri pave de Courteil (1821-1889) in the study of the legacy of Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, in the translation and linguistic translation of the "Boburnoma" deserve special praise. Pave de Courteil, Head of the Department of Turkic Languages ​​at the College de France, a member of the French Academy and a corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, made a great contribution to the development of Turkology in his native France. Professor A. Pave de Courteil's "Dictionnaire de turc orientale" (Paris, 1870) or his commentary on the works of Alisher Navoi, Zahiriddin Babur and Abulgazi Bahodirkhan. dictionary ”is of special importance. This great preparation of Professor A. Pave de Courteil, his thorough knowledge of the old Uzbek language and literature, prompted him to translate the Boburnoma. In 1871, Pave de Courteil's translation of the Boburnoma was published in two volumes (Memoire de Baber, translated for the first time by A. Pavet de Courteille, editions, 1871). The first volume contains a sixteen-page preface by the translator. It contains information about the process of writing the "Boburnoma", the events described in the book, the powerful empire that Baburshah built in Afghanistan and India.
Some Western scholars have linked the creation of the Boburnoma to the reign of Babur in India. The French translator says: "If I were asked when the Baburnama was written, I would say that it was written after Babur's conquest of India, in 1526, and lasted until the end of Baburshah's life." ”. In coming to this conclusion, Professor Pave de Courteil had implied from the earliest chapters of the work that the events of the Indian period would occur. Thus, Pave de Courteil made a great contribution to the study and promotion of the legacy of Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur in France. He became famous as a translator of "Boburnoma". This translation work, which was started by the scientist, was appreciated by the world community and led to the constant study of Babur's life by many scholars.
In the second volume of the Journal asiatique of 1888, the orientalist Jules Darmstetye wrote his Kabul Writers. The inscriptions on the tombstones of Baburshah and other Mongol princes help to get acquainted with the meaning of the words written in the tombs built by the Baburids.
It is known that Bobur's book "Aruz Risolasi" is an important guide in the study of the laws of poetry of Uzbek, Arab and other Turkic peoples. The fact that the manuscript of this work has survived to this day may not be known to the scientific community. In 1923, a Turkish scholar, MFKoprulizoda, first reported that a copy of the manuscript was kept in the National Library in Paris. The French orientalist Edgar Blosche in his book "Catalog of Manuscripts in the National Library" in Paris, pays special attention to this manuscript of the "Book of Dreams".
In the twentieth century, French orientalists have done a lot to study the legacy of Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, to translate the "Boburnoma". There are many articles by French writers that provide general information about the life and work of Babur and the book "Boburnoma". In 1930, the French scientist Fernard Grenard wrote “Bobur. Founder of the Indian Empire ”(Baber. Fondateur de l'Empire des Indes. - Paris: 1930, p. 179). The book consists of 10 chapters, in which the events of Bobur from his childhood to the end of his life are told in historical and artistic terms. Grenard's pamphlet is in line with the Boburnoma, a popular scientific essay that describes Bobur's situation when he left Samarkand and lost Andijan. It was spring and he went to his uncle's country (Tashkent-MX). In order to soothe the oppressed, he ends his ghazal, which begins with the following verse:
I found no one more loyal than my soul,
I could not find a secret other than my heart.
Babur's life in Herat and Kabul is vividly described in Grenard's book. Here Babur is not fighting for the throne, but as a gentle and charming poet.
Muhabbul Hasan, an Indian scholar and professor at the University of Kashmir, also commented on the Boburnoma, noting that it was a valuable source not only for the study of Baburshah's personality and state system, but also for the study of Indian history, geography and culture. In describing the life of his people, the author emphasizes the sharpness of perception. "No Muslim historian or geographer (except al-Beruni) has described India so vividly and accurately before Babur," he said. King Babur often described his friendly relations with the Indian people and the fact that the Indians were happy with the royal regime.
Dr. Bak'e-Grammon's translation of the Boburnoma is done at a level close to the taste of a French student. It contains maps of Movorounnahr, Afghanistan and India during the reign of Babur.
Researchers and translators of the Boburnoma, such as AJKlaprot, A.Longper, M.Langle, A.Pave de Courteil, F.Grenard, Barie-Grammon, deserve the development of Bobur studies in Europe with historical-ethnographic, bibliographic and linguistic description of Babur's legacy. contributed. In addition, it is expedient to recognize the above sources in order to collect, publish and evaluate the rich heritage of Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur in the field of science, literature and art.
Well-known foreign scholars studying the life and work of Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur will be convinced that our compatriot was a great king, a noble poet, an enlightened man, a spiritually mature person. This further enhances respect for Babur's personality and heritage. After all, in order to understand the contribution of our great compatriot Babur to world science and public administration, as well as to emulate his exemplary aspects, scientists and writers must do so by publishing the above articles and books. The study of the works of the great king and poet is still important today.
Aziza Ahmadova,
Master of National University of Uzbekistan

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