February 14: Birthday of the great king and poet Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur


One of the most famous representatives of Turkish literature, the great king and poet Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, who left an indelible mark in the history of the world with his positive activity and strong policy, became a worthy successor of Amir Temur. and his descendants were able to exert great influence on world politics for many years. Thus Babur went down in history as the founder of a great dynasty.
Bobur's delicate taste and interest in music were well known to all. He encouraged his children to learn as well, asking them to sponsor the best teachers for them. Look, Babur’s middle son, Kamron, also developed a poetic ability. He began to finish rubai and ghazals with the nickname "Kamron". Bobur's favorite daughter, Gulba, went from prose. His book "Humoyunnoma" dedicated to his elder brother Humayun became one of the most important historical documents.

Zahriddin Muhammad Babur, a great representative of medieval Eastern culture and literature, was born on February 1483, 14 in Andijan. His father, Umarshaikh Mirzo, was of Timurid descent and was the governor of Fergana region. Zahriddin Muhammad was educated and brought up under the guidance of well-known teachers and coaches of the Baburoz period. Like all Timurid princes, he was educated in his father's palace. After the death of his father Umarshaikh Mirzo in 1495, at the age of 12 he succeeded him to the throne. lib reached. He will fight for the throne of Andijan against his brother Jahongir Mirzo, uncle Sultan Ahmad Mirzo, uncle Sultan Mahmudkhan and other rivals. He fought fierce battles for the throne of Samarkand for several years, but after these fruitless battles, Babur headed south.

After the capture of Andijan by Shaibanikhan, Zahriddin Muhammad Babur was forced to leave for Afghanistan. In 1503, he captured Kabul and Ghazna without a fight. Between 1505 and 1515 he tried to return to Central Asia several times, but to no avail. In 1519-1525 he fought for the conquest of India. In April 1526, in Ponopat, Babur won the battles with the Sultan of India, Ibrahim Lodi, and in March 1527, with the ruler of Chitora, Rano Sango. Historical records show that Babur's rulers were also supported by the Punjab rulers, who were dissatisfied with the policies of the Delhi ruler Ibrahim Sultan. gave the opportunity. The new strong state is called the Baburids and has ruled for more than 300 years.

Babur created the world-famous work "Boburnoma". It reflected the history, customs and traditions of the peoples of Movarounnahr, Khorasan, India, historical figures, natural plates of the country. Babur Khoja translated Ubaydullo Ahror's pamphlet "Walidiya" from Persian into Uzbek, and wrote "Mufassal" on rhyme and rhyme.

Zahriddin Muhammad Babur, as a literary critic, historian, scholar and poet, has taken a worthy place in the history of the spiritual culture of our people.

Babur died on December 1530, 26 in Agra, India, in the beautiful Zarafshan garden, which he had built.

In a short period of time, Babur led the stabilization of the political environment in India, the beautification and unification of Indian lands, the proper organization of trade, and the creation of gardens. The construction of cultural monuments, caravanserais, and libraries became widespread during the reign of Babur and his sons. The Central Asian style began to enter Indian architecture. There was a perfect spiritual atmosphere in the presence of Babur and his ruling descendants, which brought together the most advanced and intelligent scientists, poets and musicologists of that time.

Bobur's ideas about science and enlightenment

In his enlightenment, cultural, and social activities, Babur put forward the idea of ​​being a scholar (teacher), a seeker of knowledge for the study of science.

Bobur says:

Whoever seeks knowledge needs knowledge,

The seeker of knowledge needs knowledge.

I am a seeker of knowledge, not a seeker of knowledge,

I am a seeker of knowledge, I need knowledge.

Babur encouraged those who wanted to be learned to master science with great enthusiasm.

Babur is about morality and humanity

Babur glorified goodness and fidelity as the most beautiful virtues in his views on morality, and regarded evil as a tormenting evil:

Whoever fulfills it is the source of fidelity.

Whoever suffers is a heretic.

Evil is never seen by a good man,

Whoever is evil is a heretic.

Babur encourages people to do good to the people and make a good name for themselves:


Do good to the wind, for the world is not good.

There is no better so-and-so who stays between the atheists.

Babur considers good manners, doing good to people, the nobility of man. Babur valued the working people and urged them not to forget the "working people" in the image of the people of the state.

Do not forget the people who reached the state,

Don't hold back for these five days,

says Bobur.

These humanistic views of Bobur are reflected in the work "Boburnoma" in the depiction of slaves working on farms, the sad state of the centuries.

Babur is about patriotism

In Babur's spiritual and enlightenment views, the sense of homeland occupies a significant place.

As head of state in Afghanistan and India, Babur did not forget the country where his umbilical cord blood was shed until the end of his life. He loves his homeland too much and suffers from the loss of his homeland. He sees leaving his homeland as a "mistake", a "hundredfold", and feels like a stranger who has lost his homeland. He says:

Tole was a disaster for my soul,

It was a mistake to do everything.

Leaving my land, I turned to India,

What a pity, what a pity.

 Zahriddin Muhammad Babur's ideas on science and enlightenment, morality, goodness, fidelity, educating people to do good to the people, respect for the working people, humanity, the loss of the homeland is grief, pain, views on justice, morality limi ideas are also very important in the education of modern youth.

Along with large-scale public works in India, Babur continued his literary and artistic activities. In 1503 he created "Khatti Baburi". In 1521, Mubayyin al-zakat, in 1523-25, Mukhtasar, Harb ishi, Musiqa ilmi (discovery), Volidiyya, in 1519, the 1st devon, Kabul devon, 1528 In 29 AD, the 2nd Devon created the Indian Devon. He wrote the work known as "Tuzuki Boburiy", "Voqeoti Boburiy", "Voqeanoma", "Boburnoma" in 1525-1530.

The work of Uzbek, Tajik and Russian scholars in the study and popularization of Babur's historical, scientific and literary heritage is noteworthy. The actions of such scientists as Georg Ker, N.Ilminsky, O.Senkovsky, M.Sale, Porso Shamsiyev, Sodiq Mirzayev, V.Zohidov, Ya.Gulamov, R.Nabiyev, S.Azimjanova, A.Kayumov during the XIX-XX centuries Due to this, "Boburnoma" was published several times (in Uzbek and Russian).

Although Babur wrote fluently in two languages ​​- Uzbek and Persian, he compiled only two collections of Uzbek poems. Formed in Kabul in 2 and in India in 1519, these devons are named after those places. The reception desk was not found. The total number of poems in the Indian divan is more than 1529. 400 of them are ghazals, 119 are rubais, others are poems of different genres. A certain part of Babur's poems is a ghazal. Among Babur's ghazals there are ghazals that reflect the love of life, full of enthusiastic ghazals and melodies of sorrow.

Babur is a king, a poet and a scientist.

But Babur’s iconic personality goes deeper than the kingdom, but also poetry and scholarship. Therefore, his gentle spirit and dervish heart do not care about small things, or rather, they are not worth it. So which khan or sultan:

The hope of doing is in the service of the shah

Not worth the doorkeeper's scepter, -

he says.

Babur relied on all the natural qualities and pure feelings of man, both in life and in his work. In the interests of his state and his kingdom, he could bring to his poetry a political color, a tone of propaganda. No, you will not find such melodies in Babur's poetry.

In essence, the crown reflects the aspirations of the throne, which spreads to domination, in a way that is extremely simplistic and adapts to the hearts of ordinary people:

A person who achieves what he wants

Or one who abandons all desires,

If these two things do not die in the world,

A man who takes his head and goes to a sorig.


We know that these ideas belong to the king and the poet Bobur, but we cannot deny that they apply to everyone who strives for a common goal and does not achieve it, even if "these two things are not possible". Therefore, Babur's spiritual world attracts the king. The enchantment of the soul does not cease to satisfy the soul.

Although Babur did not specialize in mysticism, some of his poems reflected mystical ideas. In the following poems of the poet, we are confronted with Babur, whose world is retreating, whose life is dervish:

This world of insignificant grief,

This is the world of honey.

The taste of this old world,

Remember this world.

Do not force yourself for the state,

Do not despise yourself for the sake of glory.


In one of his Masnavi, Babur addresses Husni Mutlaq and says:

Make my heart beat faster,

Make my soul miserable.

With your sorrows, comfort my heart,

Enlighten my heart with enlightenment.

One of Babur's rabbis said, "I did everything wrong." In fact, what Babur did was not a mistake. Even if we look at the work "Boburnoma" alone, we can see that it has not yet created such a comprehensive work. This work is a masterpiece known to the whole world. The Boburnoma covers the history of the peoples of Movarounnahr, Khorasan, Iran and India during Babur's time. The work consists of three parts: the first part - the events in Central Asia in the second half of the XV century, the second part - the events of the end of the XV century, the events of the first half of the XVI century in Kabul, the third part - the North in the first quarter of the XVI century. Dedicated to the history of the peoples of India. The full text of the "Boburnoma" was published in 1 by the Turkologist N. Ilminsky in Kazan by typography. In 2, the English scholar A. Beverigi published a manuscript of "Boburnoma" in Hyderabad. Based on these two copies, the full text of the work, consisting of two parts, was published in 3-1857 by P. Shamsiyev and Sodiq Mirzayev. Reprinted again in 1905-2. The information in "Boburnoma" is not so lovingly and perfectly covered in the works of other historical sources created at that time: Mirkhand, Khandamir, Muhammad Salih, Binoi, Muhammad Haydar, Farishta, Allomi. In "Boburnoma" the author expresses his highest opinions and comments about Alisher Navoi, Abdurahmon Jami, Behzod, Mirzo Ulugbek and other scholars. Provides valuable information and comments on such literary and artistic figures as Kamoliddin Binoi, Behzod, Mirak Naqqosh, Hussein Udiy.

Whatever and whoever Babur writes about, he is very sincere. He does not hide his joys and sorrows from anyone, but tells the truth. He speaks about both his friend and his enemy.

Despite the fact that Babur spent his whole life in the throes of war, he was by nature extremely intelligent and meticulous, very intelligent and perceptive, curious about everything. Wherever he goes, he is interested in and writes about everything from the geographical structure and location of the place, to the flora and fauna, to the winter and summer weather, to the language and customs of the people.

"Boburnoma" contains information about the history of writing, from the first poetic exercises of Bobur to his major works, and the events associated with them. He also gives detailed information about his correspondence with Alisher Navoi, his invention of the "Baburi letter", his involvement in music, his struggle for the purity and development of the Turkic language.

"Boburnoma" is a unique encyclopedia about the lands visited by Babur. But it is written not only by a selector, but also by an artist with a high artistic taste. The play contains information on various disciplines, as well as beautiful creative observations and beautiful paintings. Bobur's artistic talent is especially useful when painting landscapes of Khorasan and India, especially when telling Uzbek readers about unfamiliar customs, plants and animals. For example, he explains the date as follows:

"It simply came to our notice then. Although dates are not specific to India. Chun was not in the provinces, that's what happened. There is also a palm tree in Lamgan, the branches of which are on the top of the tree. The leaves are on both sides from the base of the branches to the tip, the body is uneven and uneven. The fruit will be like a bunch of grapes, and the quality of the bunch will be greater.

It is said that among the plants, the two functions of the palm tree are similar to those of an animal: one is to cut off the head of an animal, and the other is to cut off the head of an animal. If the head of a palm tree is also cut off, the tree will wither. Another is that no animal, such as a large or small animal, will produce a good result if it is not touched by a palm tree. The truth of this statement is unknown.

"Boburnoma" had a great influence on the development of Uzbek prose. A vivid example of this are Abulgazi Bahodirkhan's Shajarai Turk and Shajarai Takorima. The method of description and narration of "Boburnoma" was transferred to other literature through translations. Scholars and statesmen of the West and the East considered this book as the main source in defining Bobur's contribution to history and culture. In covering the history of India, according to experts, the most important work of our great ancestor Beruni after "India" is "Boburnoma".

Babur has a worthy place in the history of the spiritual culture of our people as a historian, lyric poet and scientist who has contributed to the solution of social problems with his well-known and famous works.


Bobur's prose works.

Babur began to write the "Boburnama" in 925 AH - 1518-1519 AD, and since then he has written a series of events that took place in subsequent years. 934 AH - 1527 AD, that is, Babur, who defeated Rano Sango and established his kingdom in northern India, recounted his adventures in his book, 899 AH - 1494 AD to 925 AH - 1518. He also wrote down the events up to 1519 AD in a memoir style. As a result, the "Boburnoma" contains a chronological description of the events that took place in 899 AH - 1494 AD to 936 AH - 1529 AD. It should also be noted that the Boburnoma does not contain a separate account of the events of the sixteen years (910, 915-924, 927, 928, 930, 931 and other Hijri years) between these years. However, this does not have a significant impact on the integrity of the Boburnoma.

Thus, the "Boburnoma" reflects the sequence of events in which Babur became the governor of the Fergana region, proclaimed himself king in Kabul, and finally established his kingdom in India.

The content of the "Boburnoma" is so rich and multifaceted that it describes the history, culture, customs, science and literature, flora and fauna of Movarounnahr, Afghanistan and India in the XNUMXth and early XNUMXth centuries. has become a rare source that draws a rich landscape of the world, city, village, fruits and flowers.

The protagonist of the work is the narrator Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur. The reader of "Boburnoma" is told about the bitter adventures of the protagonist, his unique personality, his extreme sensitivity, curiosity, sharp wit and versatility, broad outlook, courage and bravery, straightforwardness. z and will witness that he is a firm believer. What is important is that the protagonist, Babur, does not seek to find fault with others, but mercilessly writes down both his own guilt and error, as well as his own “sins. However, Babur writes that he was sometimes in a difficult situation and said: "I had a hard time, I cried uncontrollably (many)" (Boburnoma, p. 113).

Boburnoma is dominated by vitality, truthfulness, honesty and a simple Turkic statement. Babur's writings also support this view: "For in this history I have been urged to make every word true and to edit the description of every deed" (Boburnoma, p. 292).

The play also depicts the historical figures of that time - his father Umarshaikh Mirza, his uncle Sultan Mahmud Mirza, Sultan Hussein Boykaro, Shaibanikhan and many other crown princes, governors, Alisher Navoi, Abdurahmon Jami, Muhammad Salih, Badriddin Chochi. Their image is not the same, but the external image of each, the inner world, customs, actions, advantages and disadvantages are described in a unique way based on the stormy vision and gaze. For example, consider the image of Sultan Hussein Boykaro:

"He was a brave and courageous man. I don't know anyone from Temurbek's family. Sultan Hussein was a swordsman. There was a taboo. Devon was also in order. Turkish would say. His nickname was "Husseini"… My grandmother was a great king, both young and old, she kept rams like little ones, played with pigeons, and chickens used to fight… "


The depictions of natural wonders and landscapes in the Boburnoma also testify to Bobur's delicate taste as a writer, his poetic perception, curiosity and sensitivity. In particular, in the image of Kohistan, northeast of Kabul, he writes about the Chilgoza tree:

Or, it is interesting that in the description of the area called Dashti Sheikh, he wrote: “In this domana (at the foot of the mountain) there will be all kinds of tulips. I made a layer of art, and thirty-two to thirty-three varieties of tulips came out. If I were a kind of tulip, I would smell a little (slightly) red flower, the tulip would bloom, we would say ”(Boburnoma, p. 193).

The Boburnoma also discusses the use of Urdu words in Indian-related events, places and landscapes, and other images. The fact is that Babur began to study Urdu and even wrote some verses in Uzbek-Urdu:


Mango na havai kuch-u havasi monak-u mutti,

Poni-yu rutti is enough for the people of poverty.

Explanation of Urdu words used in the byte: power-nothing; monak-qasr; mutti-marvarid; pony-water; rutti-non.


If we pay attention, the meaning of the hadith "Poor is my pride" in this Uzbek-Urdu verse is stated in the style of Baburona.

Thus, "Boburnoma" as a historical-memorable and artistic work is a multifaceted and profound monument that embodies Bobur's writing skills and is one of the masterpieces not only of Uzbek prose, but also of world prose.

Therefore, it is wise for Mr. GNPant, an official of the National Museum in New Delhi, to conclude his article on the Boburnoma as follows:

“In the history of India, his (Babur’s) meritorious services are truly great, but his service in the field of chronicles is even greater. "Boburnoma" is a wonderful work of literature and fine arts, and its value as a historical document is immeasurable. If the biography of Amir Temur (ie, "Temur's rules") is a discovery, the biography of Babur (i.e. "Boburnoma") is the culmination of this discovery. "

Babur's poems

If you bring a hundred balloons to that unfaithful manga,

Come on, if I turn my face, damn me.

Netgayman ul rafiq bilakim, qilur baza,

Mehru vafo to the opponent, jabru jafo sanga.

If you are a stranger, you will not understand me.

Chun boldi ul parisifatim oshno manga.

Oh, my age is in the middle, weak, doctor,

I knew it was a bad manga.

Don't waste your life in pain treatment,

Who, the pain in the soul is love, the endless manga.

To whom do you like, to whom do you like,

Anxiety stops at last sango, manga.

Bobur, there are four in the way of my two eyes,

When it comes to mango manga one by one.

* * *

It is necessary to behave, to be depressed,

We need to forget what we forgot.

Ayshu gave water to the rose,

Ghussa seedlings need to be dried.

Tiyra turur zuhd damidin ko'ngul,

The fire of love must light up together.

Don't worry, there is a lot of grief,

You have to forget yourself in a crazy way.

Between hardships, Bobur, heart,

It is necessary to behave with rest.

* * *

I wish I could wake up one day to my happiness,

At night I cling to my waist like a fur coat.

If I want a sweet dictionary with a flower-like face,

When I taste the sweetness of the flower on his face like sugar.

If Shirin Bila Layliki learns to flirt with you,

Oh, Farhodu Majnun, let me teach you love.

Let the bright day be like a gathering in the dark night,

If I smoke and fill my heart with smoke.

In the clarity of my eyes, Bobur, base deficiency,

If my eyebrows look like a crescent moon.

* * *

The sale of my hair fell on my head again,

My car was black again.

I gave my heart to the girl, vale,

My lady suddenly began to break down again.

You have gone mad after seeing a hundred evils, O soul,

If you look for goodness, you will see it again,

Tosh urar atfol mani, uyida forig 'ul pari,

I scream like crazy all the time again.

I would walk like Bobur until I reached my feet, netay,

The sale of hair fell on my head again.

* * *

I did not find anyone else loyal to my soul,

I did not find any other mahram secret in my heart.

I have never seen a soul other than my own,

I didn't find it as heartbreaking.

Usruk's eyes widened,

I never found this madman awake again.

I was helpless, netay,

I did not find myself worthy of Chun guardianship.

It's time to go to the door, O heart,

I just went and couldn't find the door.

Bobur, teach yourself, I am

I didn't want to help the world.

* * *

I had a wonderful prom, black hair,

Sprinkle a black ball of melt on my injured heart.

Muyassar is the property of the dead wool, O people of the wool,

Nisori sucked the mango hair this day.

Bordered in the hair injury, broken hearts,

Hearts will open, and when they open, shave.

Open your heart, open your hair, Bobur,

No offense, if you say dilbandu dilkusho soching.

* * *

Baloyi ishqki, damda manda jafoyedur,

This work is a wonderful German nightmare.

If the letter touches your lips, O heart, what a wonder,

Ki Hizr spring is a guide to the animal.

The wound is a sore on the patient's heart,

Unless every wound is a cure for the wound.

The spring and May weather is in my head,

Keep your feet on me, it's a nice air.

That month was rival Bobur's wife

Rafiqu and Hamdami are in a state of mourning.

* * *

In your love, O unmerciful, I have become homeless,

I have become a world of two worlds.

If your lips don't give a kiss, I'll kiss you,

Along the way, I sucked into the human desert and became fluent.

Sucking, I understood the symbol of the mouth of the moon labidin,

In a word, I've been a bit of a jerk.

How many eyebrows did I show salty in my work,

Vale was finally the target of reprimands.

I laughed at Farhodi's poor friend,

This was Shirindurki's one-on-one companion.

If I don't reach the state of Visoling, like Babur, what a morning,

I have been helpless for centuries.

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